[BIOL 319] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (12 pages long!)

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Binghamton
BIOL 319
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Why are microorganisms important?
Chapter 1: Microbes Shape Our History
What is a microbe?
Where did life come from?
Life on Earth began in early history with microscopic organisms
Microbial life has shaped our atmosphere, our geology, energy cycles
Early microbes evolved into multicellular plants and organisms, including humans
“Organism is the unit element of a continuous lineage with an individual evolutionary history”
Microorganisms are “forms of life”
Viruses are “forms of life” but not truly “organisms” (life form) BECAUSE you need 6 rules to
be living:
1) metabolism: the cell is an open system
2) reproduction: chemicals from the environment are turned into new cells under the
direction of preexisting cells
3) differentiation: when a cell forms a new cell structure (changes from one cell type to
another), such as a spore, as part of its cell cycle
4) communication: cells should be able to interact with one another
5) movement: able to move around, sometimes via self-propulsion
6) evolution: cels evolve to display new biological properties (phylogenetic trees show
the evolutionary relationships between cells)
Major trait that distinguishes different types of microorganisms is the posession or absence of a
membrane-enclosed nucleus.
Prokaryotes:
lack a nuclear membrane
include bacteria and archaea
Eukaryotes:
posess a nuclear membrane (nucleus)
include fungi, protozoa, and algae
Different types of microorganisms:
Bacteria:
Prokaryotes
Reproduced by binary fission
Eubacteria, gram-negative, gram-positive, acid fast, cyanobacteria
Peptidoglycan cell walls
Chemoheterotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoautotrophs
Some bacteria are able to produce endospores
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Examples of bacteria: tetanus, botulism, gonorrhea, chlamydia,
tuberculosis …
Archaea:
Prokaryotes
If cell walls present, peptidoglycan
Live in extreme environments
Divided into:
1) Methanogens: high-methane environments
2) Extreme halophiles: high-salt conditions
3) Extreme thermophiles: very high or very low temperatures
Algae:
Photosynthetic aquatic eukaryotes
photoautotrophs, with cellulose cell walls
Both unicellular and multicellular types
They have both sexual and asexual reproductive forms
Brown, red, green, diatoms, dinoflagellates, euglenoids
Examples: Alexandrium causes Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Pseudo-nitzschia
multiseries causes Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) [some would describe some as protists],
Prototheca causes skin infections in humans
Fungi:
Eukaryotes
Chemoheterotrophs
Produce spores
Yeasts (unicellular fungi), molds (filamentous fungi)
Live in dry conditions, are plant decomposers, have a chitin cell wall and ~100
human pathogens
Molds and mushrooms are multicellular, consisting of masses of mycelia, which
are composed of filaments called hyphae
Mycoses (diseases caused by fungi): candida, ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch,
etc.
Parasites:
Helminths
Eukaryotes, chemoheterotrophs, Flatworms (platyhelminths) and
roundworms (nematodes)
trichinosis, hook worm, tape worm (pictured are scolex-heads of), etc.
Protozoa
Eukaryotes, mainly chemoheterotrophs, unicellular, flagellates, ciliates;
~30 human pathogens some are capable of forming cysts
Examples: malaria, giardiasis, amoebic dysentery…
Viruses:
Not cells but enveloped or non-enveloped
Acellular, obligate intracellular parasites
Examples: common cold, flu, HIV, herpes, chicken pox …
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