[ENVI 230] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 11 pages long Study Guide!

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Binghamton
ENVI 230
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Envi policy: humanly-devised rules that govern a society's use of natural and
constructed resources
Environment
“Natural” environment vs Build environment
Policy
synonym for institution (not organization)
Rules-in-use VS rules-on-paper
Speed limit on paper is 65 → in use it is 74
No intrinsic value in nature
Environmental Policy is about human health
3 E’s of Sustainable Development:
Environmental Quality
Economic Prosperity
Equity of opportunity
Institutions target human behavior
Modify behavior to produce a desired outcome
What society decides is the desired outcome
Humanly-devised → ergo prone to failure
The policy goal is determined politically
Alternative interests compete for their desired outcome to be defined as policy
goal
BLM: bureau of land management
Four areas on Environmental policy:
Air → point v nonpoint sources
Water → point v nonpoint
Waste (contamination) → environmental justice, economic redevelopment,
hazardous wastes, human health
Natural Resources → energy, food, endangered species
Tradeoffs
Cape Wind example → One group wants to cut pollution, one group wants to
keep aesthetic beauty of cape cod ocean front
NIMBY (Not In My BackYard)
Drilling/fracking in Texas → flames 100 ft away from playground
Things that people don't where they live still has to go somewhere, which is
usually poor areas
Policy Windows
Preceded by some sort of event
Hurricane Katrina
Externalities & transaction costs
Transaction costs: the costs associated with conducting a transaction - not the
price of the transaction itself
Search & information costs, bargaining costs, enforcement & monitoring
costs
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Glass on side of the road → 99 bikers ride past it every day → the glass never
gets picked up because of transaction costs
Institutions (policy) Matters
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