[ENVI 239] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (47 pages long!)

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Binghamton
ENVI 239
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Environment 239 Midterm Exam Review
Sustainability (Chapter 1):
Definitions of sustainability
o EPA: create and maintain the conditions under which humans and nature can exist
in productive harmony to support present and future generations
Maintaining a balance
Do not tax each other
o Brundtland Commission (1987): paths of economic, social, environmental and
political progress that aim to meet the needs of today without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their needs
Components (5Es):
o Economy: economic activities are determined by the natural resources available in
a given location (raw materials)
Tied to average natural resources
Ex: agriculture: rice farming (soil, water land)
Ex: energy extraction: oil field (concentration of oil because of geologic
history)
Ex: manufacturing: (all raw materials come from somewhere else, usually
close)
o Environment: natural capital: the stock of all natural resources required for
resource production (soil, vegetation, water)
waste assimilation (oceans and their services)
life support services (oceans absorb excess CO2)
o social equity: the capability of people to achieve a level of economic and social
wellbeing
access to resources: everyone needs access
employment: giving people the capability to build their own livelihoods to
enjoy a sense of wellbeing
gives access to resources supports the livelihoods of people
agency: ability for people’s voices and concerns to be heard, determined
by social hierarchy
in an autocratic government all of the power is at the top and there
is no voice at the bottom = no social equity
o engagement and eternity
decisions about consumption
awareness: issues that concern communities and households; what is
taking place in the environment
community participation: being engaged in civil society organizations
ex: education: recycling programs, influencing families
managing resources: wetlands and coastal management
planning: undertake planning process status where you can manage
effectively to identify the issue; who is impacted by the solution, does it
create more problems
challenges in implementing the sustainability principles
o stakeholder participation
state: local government, lobbyists, transportation services, labor, federal
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government
implement and follow policies = the goal, create laws and enforce
them
civil society: environmental organizations, public schools, unions,
nonprofits, religious organizations
goal: represent/address public interest
work collectively as a group
private sector; businesses, companies, investors, farmers, landowners
goal: money making/profit making
o ideological differences:
rooted in worldviews or paradigms of different stakeholders,
perceptions/approaches of how certain people view the environment and
use resources as a result
o cultural differences: worldviews are shaped by social culture where and how they
were raised, how they view and use natural resources
sustainability ethics: recognizes different values with objects in the natural
environment
instrumental: monetary value assigned to an object
intrinsic: cannot be quantified (personal enjoyment)
inherent worth: valuable for existence regardless of use to humans
(ex: the ocean fisheries, coastal areas)
o geographical scale: place based solutions, vertical and horizontal scale can make a
difference (ex state to state differences in the US)
o economic development:
human activities: agriculture, industry, energy use, urban development
economic growth: a means to an end
equity relative equality due to outside fact equal rights to access
resources to maintain wellbeing
multiplier effect:
allows people opportunity and resources
job creation
o environmental impacts:
overshoot: human activities are unsustainable and result in negative
outcomes; can impact human health with disease and pollution
Worldviews and paradigms
o Frontier economy (FE): the environment provides resources to be exploited
Focus on economic growth only
Anthropocentric/homocentric human aspect of sustainability
o Deep ecology (DE): biocentric view, heavily weighted towards the environment,
conserve at all costs, the opposite of frontier economy; minimize footprint and
luxuries
o Environmental protection (EP): focuses on economic growth, environmental
impacts with economic growth will be addressed after
Business as usual
Willingness to solve problems; willingness to pay
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Document Summary

Environment 239 midterm exam review: epa: create and maintain the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony to support present and future generations. Do not tax each other: brundtland commission (1987): paths of economic, social, environmental and political progress that aim to meet the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Components (5es): economy: economic activities are determined by the natural resources available in a given location (raw materials) Ex: agriculture: rice farming (soil, water land) Ex: energy extraction: oil field (concentration of oil because of geologic history) Ex: manufacturing: (all raw materials come from somewhere else, usually close: environment: natural capital: the stock of all natural resources required for resource production (soil, vegetation, water) Waste assimilation (oceans and their services) life support services (oceans absorb excess co2: social equity: the capability of people to achieve a level of economic and social wellbeing.

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