HWS 101 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Socioeconomic Status, Obesity, Food Security

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The History of Food and Nutrition in Society (cont)
A. Dietary Consumption Comparison
- Differ b/c more active
B. Agricultural Revolution
- Enablers
- Domestication of animals
- Baffal, cattle, and sheep (10,000BC)
- Selection and cultivation of crops
- Domestication of plants (depending of geographical area &
climate)
- Village life- new roles and trades
- Brick making
- Spices
- Technological development- food processing
- Milling
- Food Procurement
- Hunting Domesticated animals
- Gathering Cultivation
- Domesticated animals Trades & trading
- Cultication +/- Hunting/Gathering
- Changes to food preparation
- Cooking
- Milling
- Fermentation
- Preservation
C. Impact of the Agricultural Revolution
- Seasonality/ecological zones
- Increased food security
- Changes in food diversity
- Increase in population density
- Social hierarchies
- Role diversity
- Technological progress
- Codifying knowledge
- Trading developments (b/c more diverse products)
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- Disease and deficiencies
D. Industrial Revolution
- 17th-19th centuries
- Gave birth to factories and mass production
- People now earned their livelihood
- Urbanization
- Large landholders enclosed properties displacing agricultural workers -
movement to cities/overpopulation (lost land and displaces farmers and
land)
- Food Procurement
- Farming, specialization → reliance on staple foods/supply
- Food distribution (markets) → diversity relative to class (prices vary)
- Storage → refrigeration (ice box 1803), canning (1818)
E. The Irish Potato Famine
- 1845-1852
- Irish peasants ate 10 potatoes (average) per person per day- 80% of dietary
intake
- Potato was used to feed animals- provided additional food (milk, eggs,
meat)
- Total dependence on one crop
- Potato Blight for 3 consecutive years
- Estimates 1 million people died and 1 million emigrated
F. Industrial Revolution
- Food
- 3 meals per day were consumed:
- Tea, boiled potatoes bread, bit of bacon (occasionally), bread,
cheese, porridge
- Affluent class increase variety and quality
- Meat, butter, cheese bread, fruit, and vegetables, spices
- Food Preparation
- Food is purchased pre-processed
- Flour, baked breads, cheese, canned goods
- Class dependent
- Limited/no cooking for storage facilities due to overpopulation
- Impact
- Class differentiation
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