[MGMT 311] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (69 pages long!)

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Binghamton
MGMT 311
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Organizational Behavior by Phillips and Gully (2014)
Chapter 1
What Is Organizational Behavior?
Chapter Outline
Why Is OB Important?
Gaining a Competitive Advantage Through OB
Where Does OB Come from?
Current OB Issues
How Do We Know What We Know?
Learning Objectives
What①is①Orgaizatioal①Behaior?
How can OB make you a more effective employee and manager?
Ho①a①OB①iproe①a①fir’s①perforae?
Wh①do①OB①oepts①eed①to①e①applied①fleil①to①ath①a①opa’s①dierse①eploee①eeds?
What role does OB play in organizational ethics?
From where does our knowledge about OB come?
Why is①the①sietifi①proess①releat①to①OB?
Introduction: Key Terms
Organizational Behavior: Explains and predicts how people and groups interpret events, react, and
behave in organizations
Organization: Consists of people with formally assigned roles working together to achieve common
goals
Managers: Organizational members who are responsible for the attainment of organizational goals
Managerial Functions:
Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling
Why Is OB Important?
The core of Organizational Behavior is being effective at work.
OB helps you become a more effective employee and a better manager.
Organizations as a whole also benefit from OB.
OB also helps companies perform well.
Competitive advantage: anything that gives a firm an edge over rivals in attracting customers and
defending itself against competition
Sources of Competitive Advantage
Innovation: Developing new products, services, and markets and improving current ones
Distribution: Dominating distribution channels to block competition
Speed: Excelling at getting your product or service to consumers quickly
Convenience: Being the easiest for customers to do business
First to market: Introducing products and services before competitors
Cost: Being the lowest cost provider
Service: Providing the best customer support before, during, or after the sale
Quality: Providing the highest quality product or service
Branding: Developing the most positive image
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Gaining a Competitive Advantage Through OB
Types of Business Strategies
Cost Leadership: strive to be the lowest-cost producer in an industry for a particular level of product
quality
Differentiation Strategy: development of a product or service with unique characteristics valued by
customers
Specialization: focusing on a narrow market segment and pursuing either a differentiation or cost
leadership strategy within that market segment
Growth: company expansion organically or through acquisitions
Changing Business Strategy
Where Does OB Come From?
Scientific Management: the belief that productivity is maximized when organizations are rationalized
with precise sets of instructions based on time-and-motion studies
1. Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with scientifically studied methods
2. Scientifically select, train, and develop all workers rather than leaving them to train themselves
3. Managers provide detailed instructions and supervision to workers to ensure that they are
following the scientifically developed methods
4. Divide work equally between workers and managers
Improved productivity, but left no room for individual preferences or initiative
Hawthorne Effect: occurs when people improve some aspect of their behavior or performance because
the①ko①the’re①eig①assessed;①orkers①tried①harder①eause①of①the①spath①ad①iterest①of①the①
observers
Human Relations Movement:①ies①orgaizatios①as①ooperatie①sstes①ad①treats①orkers’①
orientations, values, and feelings as important parts of organizational dynamics and performance
Current OB Issues
1. Globalization and Diversity
The internationalization of business has become the norm for many organizations
Parochialism:①ieig①the①orld①solel①through①oe’s①o①ees①ad①perspective
Global Mindset: set of individual attributes that enable you to influence individuals, groups, and
organizations from diverse socio/cultural/institutional systems
2. Technology
People differ in their enthusiasm and attitudes toward technology
3. Ethics: Standards of behavior about how people ought to act in different situations
Types of errors:
Omission: lack of written rules
Remission: pressure by a manager or others to make unethical choices
Commission: a failure to follow sound, established operational and ethical practices
Organizational Culture: system of shared values, expectations, and behaviors that guide
eers’①attitudes①ad①ehaiors
Code of Conduct: specifies expected and prohibited actions in the workplace
Code of Ethics: decision-making guide that describes the highest values to which an
organization asprires
Why Employees Act Unethically
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