PLSC 389Z Final: PLSC Study Guide: Final 2017

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Political Science
David Cingranelli

PLSC Study Guide: Final 2017 Free speech on campus Should university conduct codes ban offensive speech? YES ● Most universities have expunged hate speech codes over the last five to seven years because of all the court cases that have popped up ● Universities should have the right to draw the line on where inappropriate speech violates campus values ● Mainly pertains to private universities not tax supported ● Have previously restricted student behavior ● Department of Education has issued a series of mandates that universities define sexual harassment as includes ● Some speech is just not tolerable and offensive speech can create an environment where someone cannot function as a student ● Although many university policies forbid verbal harassment, that doesn’t mean they’re applying the rule so broadly that it violates the First Amendment NO ● FIRE argues that “more than half of America’s top colleges maintain speech codes that blatantly violate First Amendment standards.” ● FIRE says sexual harassment policies, computer policies, codes of conduct and restrictions on where students can stage protests amount to the same thing, even if universities don’t explicitly have speech codes ● There is no right to not be offended ● The answer to speech you disagree with is more speech to express disagreement, rather than stifling some viewpoints ● What constitutes offensive speech is subjective since it isn’t well defined ● There have been many court cases that deem the most repugnant hate speech constitutionally protected ● Private universities that have speech codes may violate contractual obligations if they have written policies promising freedom of expression ● May still receive gov’t funds so still bound by federal laws like Title IX or Title VI Should students be protected from language they find offensive? YES ● May cause flashbacks in those who have experienced trauma ● 18 and 19 year olds arriving at college after a lifetime of parental supervision may find themselves in a vulnerable position ● The first amendment should be able to distinguish between filth and earnest public debate about race NO ● Trigger warnings interfere with academic freedom in the choice of course reading materials and teaching methods ● The presumption that students need to be protected rather than challenged in the classroom is at once infantilizing and anti-intellectual. It makes comfort a higher priority than intellectual engagement ● By the time teenagers come to college they need to confront new ideas Do universities that accept money from autocratic governments compromise academic freedom? YES ● Confucius Institutes are a symptom of the corporatization of universities ● Curricula of CI amounts to Chinese propaganda instructors recruited in China parrot government agenda ● Despite what universities say about there being the same amount of academic freedom on satellite campuses, the degree to which that is true is suspect, as evidenced by the NYU professor prohibited from entering Abu Dhabi because he was critical about their migrant labor practices NO ● Cultural exchanges are vital to encourage freedom of thought on both sides ● Even if chinese instructors can’t speak freely, they are here and seeing our society ● It isn’t any different from corporations or other private entities that encourage scholarship in their area of interest ● NYU says Abu Dhabi campus will have same kind of academic freedom as Manhattan campus ● While students may not have freedom of expression off campus, they engage in free discussion on campus Gay Rights Are governments and society more receptive to gay rights? YES ● More than 50 countries and 57 states, districts or other governmental entities have enacted anti-discrimination laws protecting gays, and 26 countries and 30 government entities recognize same sex unions. ● When this article was written only a handful of states had marriage equality or anything close to it and now same sex couples have the right to marry nationwide. ● There has been great progress over these past two decades in different parts of the world. ● Progress won’t be reversed ● Gov more pro than people NO ● Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, and Lithuania have taken steps to reserve marriage for heterosexuals. ● In Russia, gay-pride marches and other gatherings are banned. ● Large push in a group of African states that want a death penalty associated with homosexual acts ● Regimes scapegoating gays Does a backlash threaten advances made by gays? YES ● There has been backlash from people who believe in the traditional man and woman version of marriage ● Global factors indicate that population is rising in areas where homosexuality is opposed. (Also, there’s an increasing rate of hate crimes) ● It has spurred far right movements which are also known for targeting other minority groups ● Due to the increased visibility, there have been Higher rates of hate crimes in honduras, mexico city, etc ● Freedoms in history that were gained have been taken away ● Threat of violence from groups has been cited by government officials to justify outlawing gay- pride parades and other events. NO ● Despite the backlash, the LGBT community in Uganda are becoming more organized and have helped prevent the passage of anti-LGBT bills. ● People are still standing up and saying, “I’m gay/I’m lesbian, and I have rights, too” ● One sociologist claimed that because there was significant progress, especially in the United States with the army open, things will continue to progress. Should the United Nations and other international bodies be promoting gay rights? YES ● The European Union, however, does prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation. ● Important for international bodies to focus on equality for all ● Proponents say their concerns are based on this particular passage of the UDHR: “everyone is entitled to rights...without distinction of any kind”. ● UN: Got a sexual orientation resolution passed to stop killing gays NO ● Universal declaration of human rights doesn’t mention gay rights, just that ” all people should be treated equally.” ● People against it: bureaucracies should not promote homosexual relationships as it is against many people’s ideological, religious and cultural beliefs ● Social conservatives state that the UN promotes policies contradicting the UDHR regarding men and women are to marry and that the family is the natural group unit of society. Student prez: Should gays be given universal rights? Racial Conflict/Discrimination Would improving police interactions with African-Americans significantly advance race relations in America? YES ● Cars driven by blacks were searched more than twice as often as cars driven by whites, and force was used more frequently with blacks than with whites. ● Negative police interactions in certain high crime neighborhoods would significantly help in those neighborhoods such as the Bronx where many hate cops and feel an automatic negative bias from cops toward African Americans ● ● NO ● Videos can be used unfairly against police officers “Even if we do everything right, if we do it by the law and the investigation shows that we did, we can still just be so dragged through the mud unfairly and inaccurately by community activists, by the media. ● Law enforcement is not the worst problem facing African-Americans. Schools, health care and other structures and institutions affect people “along the lines of race and class,” ● According to FBI data 93 percent of black homicide victims were killed by other African- Americans. Would new laws and government programs reduce institutional racism? YES ● Remove war against drugs, which has discriminately affected black people and other minority more than white people ● Address racial inequality- fight poverty and reduce income ineq ● A massive government training program to train families in effective child rearing techniques. Children who do well in school have an ordered home ● NO ● Brown v. board didn’t ● Can’t pay reparations- not enough money or support ● It a sin perpetuated in the Black community: need to deal with it from a moral perspective Does government need to recommit to school desegregation? YES ● Reseg has lead to poor academic performances of black youths ● White parents can move but black and latino parents can’t. ● Charter schools, while have lotteries, don’t avoid selection bias. ● Black and white students mixed is socially positive for all the students ● Education experts link black poor academic performance to the reseg of public school ● NO ● Busing between school diseg needed, but people believe in neighborhood schools ● Call for publicly financed charter school or more school vouchers, which currently provide subsidies for private school vouchers for low income instead ● Some claim that there is no evidence that in order for black children to have high-quality education, that they must be integrated with white children. ● Resuming desegregation would be difficult (Definitions Cingranelli Went over) Systemic racism: the complex array of anti black practices, the unjustly gained political-economic power of whites, the continuing economic and other resources inequalities along racial lines, and the white racist ideologies and attitudes created to maintain and rationalize white privilege and power. Systemic here means that the core racist realities are manifested in each of society's major parts {....} each major part of the U.S society- the economy, politics, education, religion, the family - reflects the fundamental reality of systemic racism. Institutional racism: “ racial discrimination that has become established as normal behavior within a society or organization ● Initial historical insult ● Structural barriers ● Inaction in the face of need ● Societal norms ● Biological determinism ● Unearned privilege Epistemic
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