PSYC 473S Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Aplysia Gill And Siphon Withdrawal Reflex, Dentate Gyrus, Synaptic Plasticity

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23 Mar 2017
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Table 1. important people in learning and memory
Person
Contribution during golden age of memory
Ebbinghaus
-Explored how to establish and maintain memory, and discovered (1)recall declines
within an hour and (2) space repetition was more effective than massed repetition.
-to study pure memory, invented nonsense syllable [vowel between two consonants,
meaningless] in order to separate context from previously learned experience from
what participant was being asked to remember.
-documented 1st forgetting curve to create single and dual-trace theories.
-using appropriately lengthed intervals of study, both devoted to learning and between
learning sessions, can improve learning.
Ribot
Studied diseases of the brain and discovered (1) memories disappeared in an orderly
fashion [recent → personal → habits/skills → emotional] and (2) old memories are more
resistant to disease/disruption than new memories (law)
Korsakoff
From studying syndrome of anterograde (can’t make new memories) amnesia from
chronic alcoholism, he proposed that amnesia could be due to storage or retrieval
failure. Also, late stage patients also have retrograde (lost memories from before
disease) amnesia.
James
-Memories emerge in stages: Afterimage (short-lasting sensation/ immediate
response) is replaced by primary trace (STM/consciousness), that’s replaced by
secondary memory (LTM/vast record of experiences/unconscious)
-Coined term plasticity as property allowing brain modification by experience
Golgi
-Invented golgi stain that allowed neuron visualization. From this, he assumed the
nervous system was the exception to the cell theory as it looked like a continuous
network without discrete units.
-Dendrites seemed in contact with blood vessels to provide nutrients and axons
appeared continuous with each other, supporting the reticulum theory.
Cajal
-(1) neurons were independent units and not part of a continuous network. (2) neurons
composed of 3 parts. (3) axons travel short or long distances and always terminate at
specific locations among fields of dendrites. (4) axon endings are contiguous with
dendrites, not continuous.
-His big ideas were synaptic plasticity and dynamic polarization
Sherrington
Coined term synapse as the connecting area between axon and dendrite
Pavlov
Associative/classical conditioning: CS evokes the CR because the CS gets associated
with the US. Before conditioning CS + US evokes UR. After CS evokes CR without
the need for US.
Thorndike
Instrumental/operant learning shows animals adapting behavior based on
consequences of actions. The Law of effect shows the correct behavior is learned
because consequences of successful outcome strengthened S-R connection, while
consequence of unsuccessful responses weakens competing connections.
Other people contributing to neuroscience
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Bliss and
Lomo
-discovered LTP by stimulating the perforant path of the hippocampus and recording
in the dentate gyrus. They first applied a weak stimulus and measured synaptic
activity, then applied strong stimulus and saw it evoked more synaptic activity. Then
saw the strong stim induced an enduring increase in the synaptic response of WS (the
SS potentiated the WS)
Kandal
-used invertebrate aplysia california, a large slug that has a gill withdrawal reflex
modifiable by experience, to show short term habituation. It has a small brain in its
abdomen, abdominal ganglion, that supports the reflex in allowing us to identify the
memory trace.
Dudek and
Bear
showed LTD can be induced by applying 400 pulses of low frequency stim. This
results in reduced fEPSP evoked by the test stimulus, and this is at least temporarily.
Graham
Collingridge
-Determined induction but not expression of LTP depends on NMDARs thanks to the
use of APV, a competitive NMDA antagonist that occupies the receptor site so that
normal binding of glutamate can’t occur. Applying APV before inducing stim caused
no induction of LTP, but applying after LTP was induced, during the test phase, still
allowed the stimulus to evoke fEPSP
-Determined induction and expression of LTP depends on AMPARs thanks to the use
of CNQX, an AMPAR antagonist,
Gary Lynch +
Michel Baudry
Performed experiments to test how increasing AMPARs in the PSD supports LTP
expression.
Malenka and
Bear
Confirmed what Lynch theorized, that LTP and memory storage are the result of an
increase in the number of glutamate receptors in the spine.
Bradshaw
His experiment demonstrated the contribution local protein synthesis in dendrites
makes to LLTP.
-CHECK TEXTBOOK
Dudek and
Fields
-Experimented with andromic stimulation to test the soma-to nucleus signaling
hypothesis by manually inducing AP in a reverse direction from axon to dendrite.
-Applyed a weak stimulus to the Schaffer collateral. In some slices, this was followed
by stimulation applied to axons of CA1 to produce APS in those neurons and allow
the influx of calcium into the neuron. The results show that the weak stimulation
produced only a SLTP, but when it was followed by stimulation of the CA1 axons
(AKA antidromic stimulation), LLTP was induced.
-The results support how to initiate the nuclear transcription process required for an
AP
Crick
Studied how memory is stored in the brain so its is maintained after consolidation, or
so that its trace is relatively immune to molecular turnover
Table 2. Important parts of the brain/nervous system
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Document Summary

Table 1. important people in learning and memory. Explored how to establish and maintain memory, and discovered (1)recall declines within an hour and (2) space repetition was more effective than massed repetition. To study pure memory, invented nonsense syllable [vowel between two consonants, meaningless] in order to separate context from previously learned experience from what participant was being asked to remember. Documented 1st forgetting curve to create single and dual-trace theories. Using appropriately lengthed intervals of study, both devoted to learning and between learning sessions, can improve learning. Studied diseases of the brain and discovered (1) memories disappeared in an orderly fashion [recent personal habits/skills emotional] and (2) old memories are more resistant to disease/disruption than new memories (law) From studying syndrome of anterograde (can"t make new memories) amnesia from chronic alcoholism, he proposed that amnesia could be due to storage or retrieval failure. Also, late stage patients also have retrograde (lost memories from before disease) amnesia.

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