SOC 324 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Emotional Labor, Sex Segregation, Human Capital

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30 Nov 2019
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SOC 324
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1/24/19
Why is it important to learn/talk about gender and work?
* remember trends not stats
Gender is a structure in society
- Enduring patterns in society
- Outside of the individual
- Shapes individuals
Gender structures- way people do things, structure what they do
- Male vs female
- Gender possibilities
Gender = social construction of difference
No gender unless differences
- Based on biological sex at birth
Cis-gender
Gender non binary difference
- 1 gender is better, gets more (male)
Gender = master status
- Ex: age, disability
Marx, Durkheim, and Weber (3 main sociology guys)
- One thing they have in common is that they all study work
Women Shifts:
- 1st shift was paid work
- 2nd shift is house work
Gender segregation
*Aspects of Work- In American or Western Cultural Terms
1. Work is something that is paid
2. It is done in public (or at least involves interaction with larger public), that is public space
is male
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a. Based on male experience
3. Paid, public work is dependent on a person, or a set of persons, doing reproductive work
in the domestic sphere
4. Men are their work, they are what they do for pay. Women are their home, they are what
they do at home. To be a good man means to do paid work well and provide for your
family. To be a good working women means to be a good domestic caretaker/mom
Labor Force Rates of Participation
- In U.S. (16-65 years ol)
- 1990: 80% men in labor force
20% women in labor force (unmarried, any class)
- 1994: 75% men in labor force
58% women in labor force
- 2016: 69% men in labor force
56.8% women in labor force
- U.S as a whole
- 53% men
- 47% women
Women make less occupation to occupation
How to define work?
- In public sphere for purpose of exchange
- Exchange vs. use
Exchange value= exchanging work for money
Use Value= useful
Could have both values
Not official paycheck → not counted in GDP and women do most of it
With industrial revolution men dominant pay outside labor force
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