PSYCH 131 Final: Psychology of Adjustment Final Study Guide Chapters 1-6

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Bloomsburg University
PSYCH - Psychology
Hansen, Brooke

Psychology of Adjustment Chapter 1: Adjusting to Modern Life What is Psychology? • Psychology- the sciences that studies behavior and the physiological and mental processes and mental processes that underlie it o The profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems o Focuses on behavior and the related mental and physiological processes ▪ How bodily processes such as neural impulses, hormonal secretions, and genetic coding regulate behavior ▪ The thoughts, the feelings, the wishes • Behavior- is an overt/observable response or activity by an organism • Clinical Psychology- the branch of psychology that concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders What is Adjustment? • Adjustment- the physiological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life The Scientific Approach to Behavior Committed to Empiricism • Empiricism- The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation Advantages to the Scientific Approach • Clarity & Precision • Relative Intolerance of Error The Two Main Types of Research Methods used in Psychology: Experimental & Correlational Experimental Research: Looking for Causes • Experiment- a research method in which the investigator manipulates the independent variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable (The Dependent Variable) as a result • Independent Variable- a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable o The one controlled or manipulated • Dependent Variable- the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulations of the independent variable o In psych, it’s usually a measurement of some aspect of the subjects’ behavior • Experimental group- group of subjects who receive some type of treatment in regard to the independent variable • The control group- similar group of subjects who do not receive the special type of treatment given to the experimental group • Advantageous for finding cause & effect • Operational Definition- clear definition to be understood by all aspects Correlational Research: Looking for Links • Correlation- exists when two variables are related to each other • Correlation Coefficient- a numerical index of the degree of relationships that exists between two variables • Positive Correlation- the two variables vary in the SAME direction (either positively or negatively) • Negative Correlation- the two variables vary in opposite directions (inversely related) • Common methods of Correlational Research are Naturalistic Observation, Case Studies, and Surveys o Naturalistic Observation- a researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects o Case studies- In depth investigation of a single individual o Surveys- Structured questionnaires designed to solicit information about specific aspects of a participants’ behavior • **** Disadvantage: The problem of the third variable, what makes the two variables related is unknown *** Chapter 2: Theories of Personality What is Personality? • Personality- refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits o Personality trait- a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety situations o Consistency • Five Factor Theory/ Model of Personality- “The Big Five” 1. Extraversion - characterized by outgoing, social, upbeat, friendly, assertive, optimistic, pursue intimacy and interdependence 2. Neuroticism- characterized by anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable tend to over-react in response to stress, exhibit more impulsive behavior as well as more emotional instability than others 3. Openness to Experience- characterized by curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconditional attitudes, tolerant to ambiguity and have less need for closure than others 4. Agreeableness- characterized by being sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward; associated with empathy and helping behavior 5. Conscientiousness- characterized by diligence, disciplined, organized, punctual, and dependable Psychodynamic Perspectives • Include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces • Psychoanalysis required lengthy verbal interactions where Freud probed deeply into patients’ lives • Freud argued that… o unconscious forces govern the human mind, altering behavior o Childhood experiences strongly determine adult personality (suggesting that people are not masters of their own destiny) o Individuals personalities are shaped by how they cope with their sexual urges • Freud divided personality structure into 3 components: o Id- the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle ▪ Houses the raw biological urges (i.e. eat, sleep, defecate, copulate) ▪ Demands immediate gratification from the urges ▪ Primary Process Thinking- primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented o Ego- the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle ▪ The Reality Principl- seeks to delay gratification until appropriate outlets and situations can be found ▪ Secondary Process Thinking - relatively rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving ▪ Strives to avoid negative consequences from society o Superego- the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong ▪ Emerges out of the ego at about 3-5 years of age • Freud claims the id, ego, and the superego are distributed across 3 levels of awareness: o Conscious- consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time o Preconscious- material just below the surface that you aren’t consciously thinking about but can be easily retrieved, like your date of birth o Unconscious- contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but none the less exert great influence on ones’ behavior Defense Mechanisms • Defense Mechanisms- largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guilt Types of Defense Mechanisms • Repression- involves keeping distressing thought and feelings in the unconscious • Projection- involves attributing ones’ own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another person • Displacement- involves diverting emotional feelings (typically anger) from their original source to a substitute target • Reaction Formation- involves behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of ones’ own true feelings • Regression- involves a regression to immature patterns of behavior • Rationalization- involves the creation of false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior • Identification- involves bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with a person or a group Psychosexual Stages- developmental stages with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality • Fixation- a failure to move forward from one stage to another o Caused by either excessive gratification of needs or by excessive frustration of those needs • Oral Stage o approximately 0-1 years o Erotic Focus- the mouth o Experience: weaning from breast or bottle o **according to Freud, Fixations here could result in obsessive eating or smoking later on • Anal Stage o Approximately 2-3 years old o Erotic focus- Anus (expelling or retaining feces) o Experience: Toilet Training • Phallic Stage o Approx. 4-5 years old o Erotic Focus- Genitals o Experiences- identifying with adult role model o Coping with the Oedipal Complex- children manifest erotically tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, while feeling hostility towards their same sex parent • Latent Stage o Approx. 6-12 o Erotic Focus- None/ sexually repressed o Experiences: Expanding Social Contacts • Genital Stage o Approx. age:
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