[CHEM 108] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 12 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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Bloomsburg University
CHEM 108
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Phys Chem
1/26/2017
Chapter 12: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Hydrocarbons
The physiology of EVERY organism is governed by organic chemistry.
Most biomolecules are huge organic molecules, and so we will start small and work our way up.
Organic chemistry study of compounds that have a carbon skeleton also contain other atoms
with H, N, O and sometimes halogens How many valence electrons for
C? - 4 N? 5 O? 6 H? 1
Label each of the following as organic or inorganic?
KCl Inorganic CH4 Organic
C6H12O6 Organic (glucose) CaCl2 - Inorganic
Neutral C makes 4 bonds and only 4 bonds, never more and never less.
Neutral N makes 3 bonds and only 3 bonds, never more and never less.
Neutral O makes 2 bonds and only 2 bonds, never more and never less.
Neutral H makes 1 bond and only 1 bond, never more.
Although our tet list properties of a tpial orgai opoud, due to the iredile ariet
of compounds, there really is no such thing!
Like dissoles like water = polar
There are three allotropic forms of elemental carbon. Allotrope two or more forms of the
same element that differ in their chemical structure and therefore in their properties.
graphite peil lead, a terrific and messy lubricant diamond carbon bonded with a
tetrahedral geometry to four other carbons, a VERY durable substance Buckminsterfullerene
a carbon soccer ball
Despite the differences, many familiar concepts will resurface:
methane (CH4) has a 3D structure...do you remember what it is called? - Tetrahedral
ethane (C2H6) combines two of the methane structures - two tetrahedrals
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Nomenclature a system of naming I.U.P.A.C. Nomenclature System for naming organic
compounds.
developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists
used to name molecules unambiguously
works very well for small organic compounds
eoes uersoe for opouds ith ore tha  C’s
it is abandoned for larger molecules, including most drugs, in favor of common names
Alkanes Carbons are connected by single bonds
Alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2 Will see i IUPAC aes as ‐an‐ or ‐ae
A molecular formula shows the kind and number of each type of atom in a molecule but does
not show the bonding pattern.
Examples:
Methane - CH4
Ethane - 2H6
Propane - C3H8
Butane - C H 4 10
Methane, ethane, and propane have only one possible bonding pattern each.
There are two ways to rearrange C4H10.
Are these the same or isomers? Same
Isomers
isomers different compounds with the same molecular formulastructural isomers isomers
that differ in connectivity
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