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CAS AN 102
Matt Cartmill

I. How the earth was made a. Those processes we now know to be making and unmaking our world today (volcanoes, erosion, earthquakes), were seen as sigs of decay in a world created years ago by a Creator b. Most fossils, evidence of the past, are marine due to the good sediment that allows for fossil formation c. Glacial mazima is when even the normally temperate zones are covered during an ice age II. Let the geology begin! a. Nicolus Streno i. 1669 ii. Used fossils to try to put together the history of the world iii. Used the strata of the rocks to find out relative ages, oldest on bottom 1) All layers are more or less horizontal a) Stretch across Europe b) Exceptions are collapsed underground caverns 2) Made by layers of sediment settling and getting compressed 3) Realized that certain types of fossils could be associated with certain kinds of rock b. Of course, the Biblical version of god must still be recognized, so this new information was integrated with those stories i. The "first day" was the long, years long, "day" that god made the early, liquid rock earth ii. The second "day", when the sediment was laid down, was during Noah's flood iii. All the rest of history followed after c. Abraham Werner i. Neptunium 1) Secondary rocks were where coal came from 2) When those rocks melted they created tertiary rocks and volcanoes ii. Volcanists 1) Opposed the neptunists 2) There are no past tense natural processes: what we see today is what is and has always been a) James Hutton i) Uniformitarianism One. All processes the same Two. "theory of the earth" Three. Disruption exceptions, like the big bang, where the rules are changed First. But for humanity its safe to say the processes haven't changed in our lifetimes d. William Smith, surveyor i. Studied the rock layers throughout UK 1) Sequences of fossils are the same even when the rocks don’t match a) You can use the orderly fossils to figure out the rock order b) The vast majority are extinct i) There are waves not only of different species, but different TYPES of species 2) Sometimes there are gaps in which rocks are present, differences in the thickness of the layers, but they will always be in the same order, never shuffled ii. Founder of stratigraphy e. Because there are these rock layers, and because they aren't even regular, the Noah theory just doesn’t work III. Are the changes noted in species a gradual change or the result of big changes in the way the earth works? a. Development hypothesis i. Transformations of the old ii. But no one has ever seen, and our "ancients" are no different from modern human b. George Cuvier i. Castrophism 1) Giant shifts in the way the world works caused the extinctions and rebirths 2) Doesn’t work with uniformitarianism 3) But the continual rebirth allows for a god a) Doesn’t have a natural explanation for new species IV. Dating a. Carbon i. Change to N14 ii. Only for 50,000 years or less iii. There are a lot of other half life options, however b. Fission track dating i. The tracks left by atoms shooting off when half living c. Electron spin d. Thermoluminescence e. Site dependent i. Groundwater absorption ii. Amino acid racemization (flipping) V. Mountain making a. Alfred Wegener i. Pangaea 1) Permian 2) 225 mya a) Continental drift i) This makes sense because: One. The shape of the continents Two. The fact strata are the same at a certain level worldwide Three. The lack of migrating animals to the separated continents explains the differences between those populations ii) Exploring the ocean we see the plate tectonics One. Convergent Two. Divergent VI. Homology a. The need to compromise the theological with the scientific b. Developmental hypothesis i. Why animals have appendages that look the same even though they aren't used for the same thing 1) Those wouldn’t have been designed by an intelligent being- they are just plain stupid ii. Why there are patterns and the absences of patterns c. Problem of linnean hierarchy (animals are ecologically adapted to a way of life) i. Why do some animals have different ways of doing the same thing? 1) Why do they look different when they do the same thing? ii. Why do they have appendages they don’t need? iii. A common ancestor makes sense, but where is the evidence? What is the mechanism? d. Darwin and Wallace i. Natural selection is the mechanism 1) Reproduction in population selects changes that are good for that individuals sexual success 2) Divergence as the adaption worked for different habitats a) Populations are similar because of common descent i) Disruptive selection ii) Stabilizing selection iii) Directional selection ii. We have even already seen this process in artificial selection iii. Complex traits can happen if each intermediate step is beneficial 1) Three requirements: a) Individuals must vary b) Variations must be HEREDITARY (sorry Lamarck) c) Individual variation = different survival and reproduction rates iv. Some questions left over: 1) How is it maintained a) Jenkins: why doesn’t blending get rid of variation? b) How can you adapt out of the region you adapted to in the first place? c) How can the maladaptive persist? d) According to what we know about physics at this time, the earth is not old enough to allow for those kind of gradual changes e. Mendel i. Traits do not blend, but are carried as alleles ii. The parents carry the traits and pass them on to their children 1) Hapolid gamete cells: only have one code for each trait to pass on 2) One code from each parent a) When the cells reproduce, problems in reproduction like crossing over allow for changes in the genes 3) Incomplete dominance 4) codominance VII. Genetics a. Proteins i. Chains of amino acids 1) Only produce 64 combinations, most of which are repeat with 3 "punctuation" codes 2) AT 3) CG ii. The gene is the portion of the DNA that specifically codes for the creation of a specific protein 1) Locus is the point on the gene that codes for specific alleles a) Mutations i) When the copying is done wrong ii) Outside problems that interfere with production or the gene itself One. There are different mutation rates, but they are the ultimate source of variation Two. Can be deletious, or neutral, or bad, or good Three. Need to occur in the GAMETES to be inherited b. Population genetics (micro evolution) i. Examining the changes in the population allows us to figure out evolution working ii. Rates of genotypes 1) (p+q)squared=p squared+ 2pq + q squared a) Use to find the expected genotype frequencies given HW iii. Hardy weinburg equilibrium 1) Evolution of the po
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