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CAS AN 102 Midterm: Midterm 2 Study Guide

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CAS AN 102
James Schmidt

Midterm 2 Study Guide Lecture 12: Primate Social Systems I. Primate Social Systems A. Most primates (w/ exception of many Strepsirrhines) are very social B. Why would an animal choose to live in a grp? Benefits Disadvantages Protection from predators (better detection Large grp.’s more conspicuous to predators & defense) Grp.’s bring greater competition for resources Increased possibility for parasites & disease Shared info. Thermoregulation Cooperative food collection & defense Protection from infanticide II. Socioecological Model A. Theories that when placed together, try to explain how social behaviors evolve according to different environments & why they happen B. 2 most imp. ecological factors 1. Defensibility of resources 2. Degree of predation pressure C. Bateman’s Principle: females & males treated differently by the model 1. Female fitness limited by access to resources 2. Male fitness limited by access to receptive females D. Polygynous—One male monopolizes a grp. of females 1. Males typically disperse (males allow sons to remain to help defend females &/ inherit grp.) 2. “Extra” males often form bachelor grp.’s that raid during mating season 3. Typically leads to high male-male competition & high sexual dimorphism 4. E.g. gorillas, hamadryas baboons, & black howler monkeys E. Pair-Bonded 1. Male & female defend territory & raise offspring together 2. Often goes w/ a monogamous mating system 3. Both sexes typically disperse 4. Males typically provide infant care 5. E.g. titi monkeys, indris, & gibbons F. Polyandrous—One female may monopolize mating w/ several males 1. Males often responsible for care of offspring 2. Both sexes disperse, but young may stay in the grp. past sexual maturity & help raise siblings 3. Females may compete for access to males & females may be larger than males 4. E.g. Callitrichines (marmosets & tamarins) G. Multi-female, multi-male 1. Multiple males & females range together in a territory & mating promiscuously (dominant males may attempt to monopolize females) 2. Competition for mates not as intense so less pronounced sexual dimorphism 3. E.g. most Old World monkeys, capuchin monkeys, & ring-tailed lemurs H. Fission fusion 1. Bunch of males & females in an area, but they don’t all live together 2. Fuse into bigger groups when defending the area 3. Areas of scare resources & predators 4. E.g. chimps, bonobos, & spider monkeys Lecture 13: Primate Mating Systems I. Huck et al. (night monkeys)—When there is stronger monogamy, males are more likely to take care of the children II. Extra-Pair Copulations—when one is in a pair-bond, leave to go have sex w/ another A. Socially monogamous individuals often copulate outside pair-bond B. Why? 1. Fertility insurance 2. Maximize genetic diversity 3. Good genes 4. Incr. amount of direct benefits III. Polygamy—mating w/ multiple individuals A. Incr. variance in offspring for competing sex (variance for polyandrous females is less than the polygynous males) B. Female Defense Polygyny 1. Females short-lived & have low fecundity (have the ability to become pregnant) 2. Females mate shortly after becoming adults & grp. closely together in a space 3. Typically solitary IV. Leisler et al. –Monogamy usually in poor habits & ancestral V. Polygyny Threshold Model (PTM) A. When males hold territories that females then enter B. Fitness among monogamous & polygynous females must be equal C. Occurs in humans (e.g. Kipsigis tribe, Kenya); does not occur in Callitrichines Lecture 14: Primate Conservation I. Major Threats to Primates: A. Habitat destruction & degradation 1. Logging 2. Farming/slash-burn agr. 3. Road building (fragmentation) B. Climate change C. Hunting (increased)—biggest threat to primates 1. Bushmeat—wild game (rising demand) leads to disease transmission (e.g HIV & Ebola) 2. Traditional medicines (110 primate species used in traditional medicine (23 endangered; 14 critical) D. Live capture 1. Illegal pet trade 2. Biomedical research 3. Zoos E. Incr. by human pop. growth II. Susceptibility of Primates A. Long life histories & slow reproductive rates B. Sensitive to habitat disturbance III. Poaching (killing & trade) A. 2/3 + die in transit B. Illegal trade: $6-10 billion per year C. Wild species depleted by pet trade D. Exotic plants often illegally gathered IV. Conservation A. Preservation & prevention B. Conservation efforts: 1. Enforcing prohibitions on: a) Unsustainable hunting b) Protecting remaining habitats c) Targeted research & edu. 2. Efforts must occur at local, regional, national, & international levels along w/ economic, social, & political levels V. Consequences (e.g. habitat fragmentation) A. Shifting home ranges B. Lethal clashes w/ other members of the same species C. Low fertility D. Water & food availability E. Forests never restored to original condition VI. Prioritizing A. Charismatic taxa are easier to attract attention (support & funds) B. Habitats need to be protected as well VII. Potential Solutions A. Legal protections: national parks & laws B. Sustainable use C. Selective logging D. Community development E. Community-based conservation F. Eco-tourism G. Edu. & public awareness H. Alternate protein sources VIII. Why should we care? A. Primates play imp. ecological role B. Primates are an “umbrella” species C. Rainforests valuable D. B/c it’s our fault Lecture 15: Human Adaptation I. Adaptation—modification of a structure, physiology, or behavior of an organism that promotes survival in a particular environment A. Non-genetic: ‘Adjustments’ (acclimatization/accommodation) 1. Cultural (material culture—clothes & shelter) 2. Behavioral (lessen stress through behavior) 3. Acclimatization—temporary & reversible (body copes temporarily w/ local environmental stress) 4. Developmental—permanent, but not inherited (how body grows to cope w/ stress) B. Genetic 1. Change in allele frequencies over time, ‘hard-wired’ 2. Skeletal or soft-tissue or physiological II. Environmental Stressors A. Thermal stress: temp. extremes (humans more heat tolerant due to tropical ancestry) 1. Heat a) Heat cramps (lack of salt)—muscle spasms b) Heat exhaustion (dehydration)—dizziness, nausea, loss of coordination, headache, etc. c) Heat stroke (lack of water & salt)—high core body temp. 103 F, no sweating, vomiting, rapid pulse, etc. (convulsions & unconsciousness at 108 F) d) UV stress—skin cancer 2. Cold a) 79 F: blood vessels of skin start contracting b) 68 F: shivering c) 41 F: unconscious after a few hours B. Altitudinal stress: low oxygen (hypoxia), cold temp, solar radiation III. Adaptations to… A. Heat/UV stress: 1. Cultural: no clothes, AC, shelters, sunscreen 2. Behavioral: stay in shade (reduces solar radiation) 3. Acclimatization: sweating, vasodilation, reduce core temp, tanning 4. Developmental: increased perspiration B. Cold stress: 1. Cultural: clothes, heating, hot water bottles, shelter (igloos) 2. Behavioral: huddle w/ people/animals for heat (reduces surface area to mass) 3. Acclimatization: shivering, vasoconstriction, increased basal metabolic rate 4. Developmental: high extremity temp, increased number of red blood cells & vascularization C. Altitude stress: 1. Cultural: oxygen masks, pressurized planes 2. Behavioral: reduce activity to reduce oxygen consumption 3. Acclimatization: hyperventilation, increased blood flow, increased Hb 4. Developmental: barrel chests (20-30% larger lungs), brain centers insensitive to hypoxia, larger hearts IV. Geographically Patterned Variation A. Often distributed in a cline (gradual change in the frequency of genotypes & phenotypes from one geographic region to another) B. Body shape 1. Bergmann’s Rule (1847)—in warm-blooded organisms, pop.’s w/ less mass are found in warm climates & pop.’s w/ more mass are found in cold climates 2. Allen’s Rule (1877) a) Warm environment: longer limbs b) Cold environment: shorter limbs C. Skin Color 1. NOT adaptive a) Sunburn & skin cancer rarely affects reproductive success b) Skin color is a byproduct of selection on other functions of pigmentation genes c) Skin color has evolved as a result of sexual selection 2. Adaptive a) Melanin pigmentation varies by latitude & related to many latitude- dependent environmental parameters b) Darker skin protects against UV better 3. Measured by skin reflectance 4. What gives skin its color? a) Melanin—regulates amount of sunlight entering the body b) Carotene c) Hemoglobin 5. UV Radiation most related to skin color V. UVR profoundly affects biological systems A. Damage to DNA & cell membranes B. Affects reproduction by breaking down vitamins 1. Folate (Vitamin B) broken down 2. Folate deficiency slows production of DNA 3. Folate necessary for all processes requiring cell division (esp. in early embryonic development & production of sperm) C. Danger of tanning beds VI. Evolutionary Advantage of Dark Skin A. Dark skin—natural sunscreen & protects against breakdown of folate by UVR B. Not an advantage when: 1. Melanin in dark skin slows production of Vitamin D 2. Vitamin D necessary to maintain strong bones & a healthy immune system C. No Vitamin D: 1. Rickets—affects female pelvis (pelvic dimensions imp.) 2. Obstetric Fistulas—during prolonged labor, blood flow cuts off to the bladder/rectum which makes tissue die leaving a hole (fistula) 3. The farther from the equator one lives, the harder it is to make Vitamin D VII. Why did light skin evolve? A. When people moved away from the equator, their skin lost pigmentation B. Women lighter than men b/c they must produce as much Vitamin D as possible during reproductive years) VIII. Genetics of Skin Color A. KITLG (Kit ligand) 1. In stickleback fish, light-skinned pop.’s have a divergent allele of Kit ligand gene 2. People from Europe & E Asia have derived alleles at KITLG locus 3. Convergence/conserved mechanism in fish & humans for lighter pigmentation IX. Parallel Evolution A. Light skin has evolved several times in our lineage & at least twice in modern humans B. Light skin of Europeans & Asians example of evolutionary convergence Lecture 16: Evolution of Culture & Culture I. What is culture? A. Semiotic culture—culture is a system of symbols that give meaning to the world 1. Symbol—an arbitrary thing that represents something else 2. Most consider semiotic culture as uniquely human b/c humans are the only known species w/ spontaneous symbolic language 3. Other animals can also learn to use arbitrary referents B. Culture is: 1. Socially learned 2. Varies across grp.’s & temporally 3. May be influenced by ecology or genetics, but neither are required C. Bill McGrew thinks culture is a process: 1. A new pattern of behavior is invented, or an existing one is modified 2. Innovator transmits pattern to another & spreads across social units in a pop. & endures across generations II. Models for Evolution of Learning A. Assumptions of models: 1. There is a cost associated w/ learning 2. Ability to learn has a genetic underpinning B. Ethologists argue that learning should evolve when the environment changes, but not too much 1. Constant enviro
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