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Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution Notes PART 1 [COMPLETE]: 90% on final!

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CAS AN 102
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Anthropology - Study of humankind ▪ Cultural --> study of socially transmitted behaviors and society ▪ Archaeological - Material remains of earlier cultures to understand past human behaviors ▪ Linguistic --> Origin, variation, and relationships of language ▪ Biological --> Human biology and behavior within an evolutionary context Primate: Group of mammals comprising of prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans Species: Group of similar looking organisms capable of interbreeding Hominid/Hominin: Bipedal member of the evolutionary lineage leading to modern humans Genetics: why certain individuals are similar or different, can help determine relationships (through genes and chromosomes) Human biology: study of human variation with respect to evolution and physiology (through modern human traits and features) Paleoanthropology: study of human origins (through fossils) Primate paleontology: study of primate origins (through fossils) Primatology: study of non-human primates in the wild (through living non-human primates) Skeletal biology and anatomy: (through skeletons and skeletal remains) Paleopathology: study of skeletal remains for disease, trauma, and nutritional deficiencies Forensic anthropology: study of unexplained deaths (through genetic and anatomical evidence) Pre-Darwin Greek to Medieval: The Great Chain of Being - Intellect ordered linearly Fixity of species Young Earth (thought to begin at 4004 BC by using biblical lineages) Persecution for challenging this Renaissance: Rediscovery of Greeks and Romans Scientific study of human anatomy (da Vinci) New technologies (telescope to prove heliocentric universe) Exploring the world (saw variation and diversity of plants, animals, and humans) Overturned middle age ideas of fixity and hierarchy John Ray (1627-1705) -Minister -First to propose idea of species and genera Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) -Systematically classified organisms by class and order -Believed species were static and created by divine creator -Ideas moved away from linear hierarchy Georges de Buffon (1707-1788) -Suggested species were not fixed and they could change with new climates and degrade -Not all structures have function -Believed world was old Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) -Zoonomia: proposed idea of evolution -Lunar society -No mechanism for evolution Jean-Baptise de Lamark (1774-1829) -First mechanism for evolution
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