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Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution Notes PART 8 [COMPLETE]: 90% on final!

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CAS AN 102
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Primates Cenozoic (Current era) Mesozoic (Dinocaur times) Paleozoic Divide geological time into eras, periods, and epochs Quaternary (Current period) Holocene (Current epoch) Pliocene (Epoch of human evolution) Tree shrews and flying lemurs closely related to primates 290 species of primates organized in 6 superfamilies Primates relatively unspecialized compared to other orders Primate taxonomy: Proimians (lemurs, lorises, tarsiers) and anthropoidea (monkeys, apes, humans) Strepsirhines (lemurs, lorises) and haplorhines (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans) Tarsier problem Early primates ▪ Very small and lived in trees ▪ Probably nocturnal ▪ Insectivorous diet Climatic change associated with radiations and extinctions of major primate groups Fossil primates first appeared around 60 million years ago Primates filled a variety of arboreal niches Postcranium ⁃ Five fingers and toes ⁃ Prehensile hands ⁃ Opposable big toe (hallux) and thumb ⁃ Nails instead of claws ⁃ Friction or tactile pads on fingers and toes ⁃ Fingerprints ⁃ Usually hindlimb dominated locomotion ⁃ Center of gravity nearest the hindlimb ⁃ Arboreal quadrupedalism vs terrestrial quadrupedalism ⁃ Tencyency toward vertical postures Cranium ⁃ Olfaction de-emphasized ⁃ Emphasis on vision ⁃ Post-orbital bar or plate ⁃ Stereoscopic vision ⁃ Relatively bigger visual cortex ⁃ Smaller olfactory lobes ⁃ Eyes face forward ⁃ Petrosal bulla: covers and protects part of inner ear (truly unique to primates) ⁃ Brain large for body size ⁃ Teeth unspecialized with a maximum of in living species Life History ⁃ How an organism spreads growth and reproduction out over its lifetime ⁃ Slow reproducers ⁃ Live long lives ⁃ Reproduce late in live ⁃ Long interbirth intervals ⁃ r-K Scale of Reproductive Strategy ⁃ Low periods of juvenile dependency ⁃ Long genstation, lactation, interbirth interval Ecology ⁃ Tropical distribution ⁃ Omnivorous ⁃ Anthropoids are diurnal ⁃ Gregarious (reside in social groups) Arboreal Hypothesis ▪ Primate tr
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