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Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution Notes PART 11 [COMPLETE]: 90% on final!

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Boston University
CAS AN 102

Primate Ranging and Conservation Preferred food: Foods that are over-selected in relation to their availability • High quality (high in calories, low in fiber) • Often allows fast intake of calories • Processed more easily • Rare in environment, hard to locate (e.g. fruit) Fallback food: High abundance, low quality foods • Low quality • Often hard to process • Abundant, easy to locate (e.g. leaves) Evolutionary Consequences of Preferred and Fallback Foods • Adaptations for food harvesting based on preferred foods • General cognition • Spatial navigation • Locomotor adaptations • Visual acuity (color vision) • Olfaction Adaptations for food processing based on fallback foods • Dental topography and enamel thickness • Gut length and morphology • Body size • Tool use Diets similar when high food supply, diets diverge when food is scarce Fallback Food and Dentition • During food abundence, no difference in hardness of foods despite thick enamel • During food scarcity mangabeys eat harder foods Contest Competition: Individuals systematically exlude other individuals from resource ⁃ Occurs when food patches are clumped, small, and dfendable ⁃ Primates can monopolize the resource so there is direct competition Scramble Competition: Individuals lose access to resources because others have already found them ⁃ Occurs when food patches are dispersed
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