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Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution Notes PART 13 [COMPLETE]: 90% on final!

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Boston University
CAS AN 102

Social Organization Females limited by access to food so females distribute themselves according to how food is distributed Males limited by females so males distribute themselves according to how females are distributed Female distribution based on defendability of and access to resources, predation, and offspring care Type of feeding competition determines female relationships Male strategies: infanticide, paternal care Mating systems • Solitary (dispersed) • Polygyny (one male, multi-female) ⁃ Most common ⁃ Depends on whether males can economically defend multiple females ⁃ Depends on how females are dispersed ⁃ Primarly when food is clumped (if food is dispersed females will not form groups) ⁃ Little food competition means males can keep females together in a group ⁃ Groups of related, philopatric females ⁃ A male may be able to defend a group from other mates • Monogamy (pair-living) ⁃ Less than 5% of mammals, around 90% of birds ⁃ Evolves when male parental care is non-shareable and indispensable to female reproduction ⁃ Evolves when aggression by mated females prevents males from acquiring additional mates • Polyandry (one female, multi-male) ⁃ Very rare • Polygynandry (multi-male, multi-female) ⁃ Very common, similar to polygyny If males and females remain in same group they were born in, it would likely result in inbreeding Inbreeding increases homozygosity and will expose deleterious recessive alleles Philopatric: Sex that remains where they were born while other sex disperses Kin Selection Individual selection: individuals and the genes they carry are units of selection because the individual is the unit that can reproduce and die Group selection: assumes that some animals sacrifice themselves for th
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