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Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution Notes PART 14 [COMPLETE]: 90% on final!

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CAS AN 102

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Paleoanthropology The study of the human fossil record Major types of data: fossil-bearing sites, fossils, artifacts How are fossils formed? • Animal dies, just bones remain, trampling or tumbling occurs, covered by sediment, petrification, erosion uncovers fossil Sub-fossil not totally fossilized Fossils are rare and represent a small fraction of past life Must have unique conditions of preservation, volcano, flood, etc to fossilize Teeth and jaws are more likely to be recovered Taphonomy: The study of what happens to the remains of an animal from the time of death to time of discovery Taphonomic processes • Did damage on bones occur before or after death? • Did scavengers have an effect on bone? • Did bones get moved by water? • Were cut marks made by humans or animals? Stratigraphy: Study of the order of rock layers and the sequence of events they reflect Sedimentary rocks are formed layer by layer James Hutton ⁃ Founder of modern geology ⁃ Uniformitarianism: Geological processes going on today happened in the past Charles Lyell ⁃ Promoted uniformitarianism ⁃ Synthesized principles of geology • Principles of Stratigraphy • Principle of Original Horizontality: All of Earth's layers are laid down parallel to the Earth's gravitational field • Principle of Superposition: Older layers are at the botton, younger layers at the top • Principles of Cross-Cutting: Geological features that cut through existing layers must be newer • Principle of Faunal Succession: The Earth's fauna are laid down in predictable
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