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Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution Notes PART 22 [COMPLETE]: 90% on final!

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CAS AN 102
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Modern Homo sapiens Evolved in Africa around 160kya Spread around world 100-50kya Have longer limbs than Neandertals and other hominins Vertical forehead Small face with protruding chin Less robust post-cranial skeleton Smaller brow ridges and nose Small incisors Pyramidal mastoid process (behind ear) Definite chin Early Homo sapiens in Africa ⁃ Herto (Ethiopia) ⁃ 160kya ⁃ More robust facial features than later anatomically modern humans (AMHs) ⁃ Cranial capacity 1450 cc ⁃ Does not have Neandertal traits (midface prognathism, wide nasal opening) Early Homo sapiens in Near East ⁃ Skhul Cave (Israel) ⁃ 115kya ⁃ High cranial vault ⁃ Small anterior teeth ⁃ 1400cc Homo sapiens in Europe ⁃ Cro-Magnon (France) ⁃ 30kya ⁃ Small anterior teeth ⁃ Female skull has very modern appearance (very flat brow ridges) ⁃ Males more robust Homo sapiens in Australia ⁃ Kow Swamp (Australia) ⁃ 13kya ⁃ Cranial traits not as modern (receding forehead, pronounced brow ridges) ⁃ Postcranial traits very modern (slender, long limbed) Homo sapiens contemporaneous with other hominins for a portion of time • Complete Replacement Model ⁃ Out of Africa model ⁃ Homo sapiens arose in Africa ⁃ First wave: H. erectus moved out of Africa into Asia and Europe ⁃ H. heidelbergensis moved into Europe and evolved into Neandertals ⁃ Second wave: AMHs move into Europe and Asia, replacing other hominins ⁃ Distinct species, did not interbreed with existing hominins • • Partial Replacement Model • - Same as complete replacement but they did interbreed with existing hominins • • Regional Continuity Model • - Homo sapiens evolved independentally in all parts of the world • - Ancestors were hominins who previously occupied these regions - Multiregional model - Entensive gene flow made us one species Study of living people to determine Most
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