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Complete Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution Study guide: Part 1 (90% on final)

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Boston University
CAS AN 102

Lecture 1 anthropology: study of humankind ● cultural anthropology: studies how human societies adapt to local conditions using learned, socially transmitted behaviors; study of human cultures and society ● archaeology: study and interpretation of material remains recovered from earlier cultures in order to understand past human behaviors ● linguistic anthropology: study of origin, variation, and relationships of language groups among human societies ● biological anthropology: study of human biology and behavior within an evolutionary context ○ genetics: the study of inherited traits ○ human biology: study of human variation with respect to evolution and physiology ○ paleoanthropology: interdisciplinary study of human origins ○ nonhuman primate paleontology: interdisciplinary study of primate origins in paleontological framework ○ primatology: study of nonhuman primates, usually in the wild ○ skeletal biology & anatomy: study of the body, how it grows, and the relationships between ecology and growth ○ paleopathology: study of human remains for evidence of trauma, infection, and nutritional deficiencies to uncover why individuals or communities died primate: a group of mammals comprising prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans species: a group of similarly looking organisms capable of interbreeding hominid/hominin: a bipedal member of the evolutionary lineage leading to modern humans evolutionary tree: a diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among species or groups of species Lecture 2 Pre-Darwinian View ● great chain of being ● fixity of species ● earth - 4004 bc ● persecuted for challenging this view Renaissance Thinkers ● John Ray: species and genus ● Carolus Linnaeus: systematic classification of organisms, binomial nomenclature ● Georges de Buffon: species change with environment; world is old ● Erasmus Darwin: origin of species through evolution (no mechanism) ● Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck: theory of evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics ○ wrong: traits acquired during your lifetime can't be passed on ○ right: relationship between organism and environment, heritability (offspring look like parents), traits that help an organism survive are more likely to be present in future generations ● Georges Cuvier: fossils could be grouped with modern organisms; younger fossils like modern organisms; catastrophism as explanation ● James Hutton: uniformitarianism - geological processes in the past are the same as those in the present ● Charles Lyell: fossils show gradual change, uniformitarianism ● MaryAnning: fossil hunter, challenged age of earth and fixity of species ● Benjamin Franklin: populations cannot exceed limits of subsistence ● Thomas Malthus: populations have the potential to increase at a faster rate than resources => competition Thus: life on earth had undergone a long complex change, fossils record change, yet there is still not mechanism to explain change Charles Darwin ● naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle ● fossils - implied long term geologic changes over time - extinct species - resemble forms of current animals ● Galapagos Islands: biological diversity, variation between islands with respect to environments ○ oceanic islands had many closely related species found nowhere else ○ isolated islands lack whole groups of organisms - so other species have changed to fill niche ○ animals and plants resemble those on the mainland even though environment different ● artificial breeding could select for strains that differed notably from the original form ● geographic variation hinted at local modification for single species ● vestigial organs suggested history of change ● Alfred Russell Wallace - "survival of the fittest" - joint publication ● slavery & Darwin: witnessed brutality of slave trade & saw no lines could be drawn dividing one race from another. Darwin bred pigeons - "races" prove via analogy that humans could also come from a common ancestor Lecture 3 Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection 1. There is variation within a population; individual variation affects ability to survive/reproduce 2. Most variation is inherited (heritability); variation is transmitted from parents to offspring, if it's genetic 3. Over-reproduction leads to a struggle for existence/intense competition; due to the variation in traits some individuals are better able to survive and reproduce than others => leads to adaptation, retention of traits that improve survival or reproduction => explains why species and populations changed & why organisms seemed well-adapted to their environment reproductive success: successfully leaving more copies of your genes in subsequent generations than do other individuals fitness: the ability of an individual to contribute genetic material to subsequent generations adaptation: a feature or trait that evolved via natural selection to perform a specific task that directly or ultimately leads to reproduction or survivorship Evolution inAction ● drought of 1977 - medium ground finches with large beaks could take advantage of alternate foods because could crack open larger seeds ● in 1978, measured beaks and saw that offspring's beaks were significantly larger than previous Sexual Selection ● inter-sexual choice ○ selection for elaborate plumage, flanged males, and displays increase chances of being chosen as mate ● intra-sexual competition ○ males twice as big as females ● inter-sexual coercion ○ males use sexual coercion through forced copulations Lecture 4 There was no theory to explain inheritance or source of variation Genetics: helps us understand the process of natural selection by explaining source of variation & mechanisms of inheritance ● cellular and molecular genetics: study of genetics at level of cells and the DNAmolecule ● classical or Mendelian genetics: tracks how traits are passed from one generation to the next through pedigree analysis ● population genetics: examines variation within and between populations of one species to learn about evolutionary history of populations ● phylogenetics: determining evolutionary relationships between species ● behavioral genetics: examines how animal behavior is influenced by genetics Chromosome ● discovered by Walther Flemming inside cell nucleus, also discovered mitosis ● chromosomes are present in paired sets ● inheritance is passed through chromosomes; one must come from each parent ● gametes contain only one set of chromosomes ● zygote contains two complete sets of chromosomes ● cells with one set of chromosomes are called haploid ● cells with two sets of chromosomes are called diploid ● humans ordinarily have 46 chromosomes, 23 matched pairs ● the short 23rd chromosome in males is the y chromosome ● Wilhelm Johannsen - gene - unit of inheritance on chromosomes ● Watson, Crick, Franklin, Wilkins - DNA Cells prokaryotic cells: single celled organisms; haploid eukaryotic cells: structurally more complex cells; diploid; found in humans somatic cells: the components of body tissues gametes: cells used for reproduction; only changes in the DNAwithin gametes are transmitted to offspring ● mitochondria is an organelle that also contains DNA ● chromosomes are contained in the nucleus of the cell ● protein synthesis takes place in ribosomes which are a part of the rough endoplasmic reticulum DNA ● DNAis tightly coiled within the chromosomes ● arranged in a double helix structure ● comes in units called nucleotides - consisting of a sugar, phosphate, and a base ● bases: purines - Adenine (A), Guanine (G), pyrimidines - Thymine (T), Cytosine (C) ● sugar and phosphate form upright strands of helix, bases form rungs ● DNAencodes info for proteins ● genes contain info that code for different types of proteins Protein Biology ● proteins are major structural components of various body tissues ● proteins are made up of chains of amino acids. There are 20 important amino acids & 9 essential amino acids that come from protein in food. ● amino acids share a common chemical structure so they can bind together ● proteins differ according to number of amino acids and the sequence in which they are arranged ● a chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide ● simple proteins may be made up of a single polypeptide chain ● larger, more complex proteins can be made of up several polypeptide chains ● a nucleotide triplet is called a codon and codes for a single amino acid ● amino acids are joined together to make proteins ● the relationship between codons and amino acids is called the genetic code ● transcription: information from DNAis first transcribed into mRNA in the nucleus ○ DNAstrands partly separate under action of enzyme RNApolymerase ○ free strands of mRNA transcribe DNAstrand by adding the matching base pairs from free nucleotides ○ RNAuses uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) ● translation: mRNA leaves nucleus and is translated into protein ○ the mRNA travels through the nuclear membrane to the ribosome ○ the ribosome is in the cell cytoplasm and is the site for protein synthesis ○ there it meets up with two other forms of RNA: rRNA(ribsomal RNA) and tRNA (transfer RNA) ○ rRNAis the RNAcomponent of the ribosome, has two sub-units, LSU and SSU ○ mRNAbinds to two sides of the subunit to initiate protein synthesis ○ tRNAarrive at ribosome carrying the specific amino acids specified by the codon ○ the anti-codon on the tRNAmatches up with the codons on the mRNA ○ first match occurs at the p site and the second match occurs at the a site ○ tRNAs line up & the amino acids they carry join together two at a time Lecture 5 Chromosomes come in homologous pairs - same allele, same loci cell interphase: period when a cell is not involved in cell division; during this period the DNAis dispersed and uncoiled in the nucleus - chromatin DNAReplication ● before the cell divides it needs to double its genetic material ● this replication happens when DNAis in the chromatin form ● enzymes break the DNAbonds and it unzips down the middle ● unattached nucleotides pair with appropriate complementary nucleotide on each strand ● in preparation for cell division, chromatin condenses into chromosomes ● the two identical strands of DNAjoin together at what is called a centromere ● DNAcondenses around proteins called histones ● double chromosome is composed of two identical chromatids Mitosis > cell division in somatic cells > occurs during growth and repair and replacement of tissues > produces two diploid cells from one diploid cell ● the nuclear membrane disappears ● chromosomes form from chromatin ● chromatids align on center of cell ● chromatids split apart at the centromeres and the duplicate chromosomes move to either end of the cell ● the cell pinches in the middle and divides in two ● now 2 identical diploid cells have been produced Meiosis Sex > can only pass on half your genes to your offspring > must combine male and female genomes without making major mistakes > energy and risks associated with finding and competing for mates > leads to genetically variable offspring > allows an offspring to inherit favorable alleles > gets rid of harmful mutations by bringing together bad mutations ● produces 4 haploid cells instead of two diploid cells ● DNAreplicates ● chromatids match up with homologous chromosome forming a tetrad (this doesn’t happen in mitosis) ● genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes through crossing over or recombination ○ strands of genetic material are broken or joined to a homologous chromosome ○ this crossing over leads to offspring having different chromosomes from their parents ○ major engine for creation of new variation ● chromatids stay together when they separate, so that after the first division each cell has two copies of the maternal and two copies of the paternal chromosome ● second division when the chromatids split producing four daughter cells > meiosis increases genetic variation at a faster rate than mutation Mutation ● occurs when the sequence of bases in a gene is altered ● must appear in gametes in order to be inherited ● somatic mutations are not inherited ● caused by background radiation, heat, or randomly generated ● age affects DNAspindle mechanism > too many or too few chromosomes = nondisjunctive errors ● the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during cell division Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) ● duplication of 1 chromosome in the 21st chromosome pair ● results in characteristic facial appearance and poor growth, mild mental retardation Turner’s Syndrome ● possession of just 1 X chromosome instead of 2 ● so, just have 45 chromosomes instead of 46 ● develop as females but short with underdeveloped ovaries and sterile Klinefelter’s Syndrome ● possession of 2 Xs and a Y chromosome, so XXY trisomy ● 47 instead of 46 chromosomes ● develop as males with small testes and reduced fertility and some female physical characteristics Lecture 6 Gregor Mendel ● discovered the particular nature of genes ● created concepts of genotype and phenotype ● masked traits are recessive and expressed traits are dominant 1. Mendel’s Law of Segregation - allele pairs separate during gamete formation and unite randomly at fertilization (meiosis) a. particles must come in pairs - with offspring inheriting one unit from each parent (genes) b. pairs must separate into different sex cells and unite again at fertilization 2. Blended Inheritance a. idea that each parental contribution is “halved” at each generation b. new variants wouldn’t persist and evolution could not occur c. Mendel disproved this 3. Mendel’s Law of IndependentAssortment - the distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not affect the distribution of another pair a. two traits weren’t inherited together, but sorted independently b. applies to traits on different chromosomes locus: location on chromosome where homologous genes are located alleles: alternate forms of DNAsequence at locus (gene) heterozygous: having different alleles (different DNAsequences) at a particular locus homozygous: having the same alleles (same DNAsequence) at a particular locus genotype: the genetic composition of an individual, or the genetic composition (DNAsequence) at a specific locus phenotype: the observable characteristics of an individual > individuals with the same phenotype may have different genotypes Conclusions ● hereditary info is transmitted in discrete packets (genes) ● a gene governing a particular property (seed color) may have several variants (alleles of the gene) ● an individual inherits two copies of each gene - one copy from each parent ● when one allele of a gene is inherited from one parent, and a different allele is inherited from the other parent, one allele may not be expressed in the offspring (recessive as opposed to the expressed, dominant) Genes and Environment ● your phenotype is due to the interaction between your genes and environment ● most complex traits are polygenic - they result from combined action of more than one gene Lecture 7 qualitative traits: where there are different and non-overlapping phenotypic variants polygenic traits: controlled by multiple genes, influenced by alleles at two or more loci heritability: contribution due to genes > most traits we observe in humans are continuous (have overlapping variation): height, weight, hair color Polygenic Traits & Genes and Environment 1. Skin Color a. influenced by melanin present - controlled by 3-6 loci with at least 2 alleles
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