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CAS AR 100 (71)
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Exam 2 Study Guide.docx

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Department
Archaeology
Course
CAS AR 100
Professor
Michael Danti
Semester
Spring

Description
AR 100 Study Guide 2 TUTANKHAMUN’S TOMB Pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) - Became hair apparent when his brother Thutmose dies prematurely - Ruled for 17 years - Imposed monotheism (Pharaoh was divine dictator, which angered many) - Moved the country’s capital - Empire declined rapidly and was succeeded by his young son, Tutankhamen Amarna- - Excavated by and Edward R. Ayrton and Flinders Petrie in 1907 - Constructed by 1341BC Valley of the Kings - Became the royal burial place where Tutmose I, Tutankhamen and Ramses II were buried Theodore Davis - Lawyer who excavated the Valley of the Kings along withAyrton and others - When his efforts to find an intact royal tomb did not yield anything, he said that the Valley of the Kings had been exhausted. - He was proved wrong by the discovery of Tutankhamen’s intact tomb. Pit 54 - Cache for some of the grave goods and funerary equipment of Tut - Excavated byAyrton for Davis - Davis and Ayrton believed that they had found the tomb of Tutankhamen (a hieratic text had been found that indicated it was related to Tut) Howard Carter — Who? When was tut’s tomb found? - Archaeologist funded by Lord Carnarvon who was credited with finding Tut’s fully intact tomb - Tut’s tomb was found Nov 1922 Lord Carnarvon — Who? - Chief financial backer on many of Carter’s Egyptian excavation - Chose Cater to replace Davis, who had resigned Tut’s Tomb and his mummy - False and sealed entrance saved the tomb from looting and destruction - Tut was king for 10 years and died when was 19years old - Lots of recycling, king was buried in haste, and family didn’t seem to care or have the power to act - Climate affected the condition of the tomb EGYPT Napoleon’s Invasion - French conducted excavations and discovered Rosetta Stone - Increased western interest in Egyptology The Rosetta Stone - Aslab of stone with the decree of Ptolemy V inscribed in Greek, Demotic and Egyptian hieroglyphs - Helped Champollion decipher hieroglyphs by focusing on personal names that would be almost identical in each language Pharaoh Narmer — Who was he? What is the Narmer Palette and what does it tell us? Is there a link between Narmer and Menes? - Narmer was the first king of the First Dynasty, unified Upper and Lower Egypt, ruled over all of it - Narmer Palette showed the unifier of Egypt defeating the king of Lower Egypt and wearing both crowns. - Because there are similarities between the life of Narmer and Menes, the consensus is that they are one and the same. Mastaba Tombs — What are they (especially their functions)? Link them to the development of true pyramids. - Stone benches that were the predecessors of true pyramids. - Consisted of several layers of stone angling inwards to form and “bench” - Burials monuments of important people where family members or strangers could offer food to help the deceased in the after life - Serdab – narrow chamber of the mastaba that was concealed by a narrow passage and contained a statue of the deceased Saqqara Egypt - Site of Royal Necropolis of Djoser/ Netjerykhet - Contained the Stepped Pyramid of Djoser and Djoser Necropolis The Stepped Pyramid of Djoser - Necropolis of Djoser, became an important source of revenue for the crown bc it was a tourist attraction, one of the first examples of angled triangular pyramids - Engineers had to keep adding levels because Djoser kept doing important things and living a long life. Imhotep — - Architect, chancellor, and Great Seer of the sun god, Ra. - Planned the Stepped Pyramid of Djoser and many other works Funerary (Pyramid) Complexes (See slide 33) — Key elements and their functions. (Ancestor Cult, the pharaoh achieving the afterlife and being maintained there, protecting the royal burial) - Included Pyramid, funerary temple (to leave offerings), enclosure wall (to prevent intruders), causeway/ processional ramp (to allow visitors to walk to the temple from the Nile without being subject to the Egyptian climate and to show the history of the deceased), Valley Temple (to allow visitors to leave their offerings without entering the complex), and satellite pyramid for other important people to be buried in. Dashur - Bent pyramid, early experiment by Sneferu: angle was right so the engineers had to change it halfway Giza, Egypt — What is there? What was the function of the site? - Great Pyramid of Khufu: First large scale pyramid with lots of adornments and paintings - Solar Boat (discovered by Kamal al-Mallakh and Zaki Nur) - Khafre and Menkaure The Sphinx - Could have been built by Khufu or Khafre - Khafre’s head on a lion’s body Treasure of Hetepheres - Sedan Chair of Queen Hetepheres I - Told us about how high-profile they were The Solar Boats at Giza - Large boats found in Great Pyramid of Khufu by Kamal al-Mallakh and Zaki Nur) - Meant to be used by the pharaoh in the afterlife Giovanni Belzoni - Italian explorer who entered Pyramid of Khafre and inscribed his accomplishment on the wall The decline of pyramid construction — What happened in the later Old Kingdom in Egypt in terms of pyramid construction (pyramid size reduction, the meaning of this, Pyramid Texts) th - The size of pyramids begins to decline following the 4 Dynasty and the three main pyramids at Giza are never equaled AEGEAN CIVILIZATION Minoans - Found near the site of Knossos on the island of Crete - Maritime traders who were very powerful in Greece and ruled over Myceneans Myceneans — Who? - Found in Southern Greece, were in contact with Minoans - Sites includeAthens, Pylos, Thebes, and Tiryns 1200 BC - Almost all major states collapse, attributed to the Sea Peoples - Marked the end of the BronzeAge Homer (the Iliad/Odyssey) andthis signthicance to early archaeology in the eastern Mediterranean - Archaeology in the 19 and 20 century was driven by a desire to investigate Greek textual sources and led to search for Troy in northwest Turkey Sea Peoples - Possibly Myceneans who attacked many different civilizations and sites, including Knossos Hissarlik/Troy - Thought of by Frank Calvert but published by Heinrich Schliemann - Schliemann believes that Troy II was Troy in Homer’s Odyssey when it was most likely Troy VIIa - Tears through upper levels and focuses on the area of the earlies fortification wall (angered Calvert) - Found Priam’s treasure (Troy II), which turned out to be some fakes and reals Heinrich Schliemann - Businessman, speculator, and archaeologist - Excavated Troy, Mychenae, and Tiryns - Man who was “Destined to find Troy” Frank Calvert - Schliemann partner, was digging at site for 20 years Priam’s Treasure - Treasure is from Troy II - Styles not right for the time period (mix of styles and fakes - Yannakis (Schliemann’s servant) testified to finding some of the treasure in a nearby tomb and goldsmith made others Mycenae - City ofAgamemnon - Hill citadel with temples, palaces and elite burials - Tholoi and Shaft tombs: Clynestra and her loverAegisthus were buried outside city walls nd - Incorrectly misdated findings because he was relying on Rom
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