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AR 100 Midterm 2 Study Guide Lectures 10-12

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CAS AR 100
Michael Danti

AR 100 Midterm 2 Study Guide Ancient Egypt- King Tut 1. History divided into three GoldenAges of Egyptian civilization: Old, Middle and New Kingdoms. Times when Egypt was powerful a. New Kingdom (18-20 Dynasties, 1550-1070 BC) i. Amenhotep III (1388-48 BC) 1. Egypt at the height of her power and prestige 2. Ripe for change 3. Theological crisis ii. The City of Thebes 1. Capital of Upper Egypt during new Kingdom 2. East- Cult center for god Amun 3. West- Valley of Kings and Valley of Queens 4. Dei el-Medina – village of workmen and officials iii.ArmanaAge 1360-1298 BC 1. Amenhotep III marries Tiye, gives birth toAmenhotep IV 2. Amenhotep IV (akaAkhenaten) has two women a. Relationship with Nerfiti birthsAnkhesenamun b. Relationship with Kiye births Tutankhaten 3. Tutankhaten (aka Tutankhamun) marriesAnkhesenamun iv. Amenhotep IV 1. rules from 1360-1343 BC 2. imposed monotheism 3. pharaoh as divine dictator 4. moved country’s capital 5. empire declines rapidly v. Tutankhamun 1. Archaeologists searched extensively form tomb 2. Pit 54. Theodore Davis thinks they’ve exhausted Valley of kings 3. Lord Carnarvon Howard Carver found tomb in Nov. 1922 4. Small for a royal burial 5. King was buried in haste 6. Broken leg, scoliosis, malaria Early Egypt 1. The Rosetta Stone a. Napoleon started archaeological surveys of Egypt, sparking interest b. Leads to the discovery of The Rosetta Stone i. Adecree if Ptolemy V from March 27, 196 BC ii. Trilingual Inscription in Greek Demotic and Egyptian Hieroglyphs iii.Now made deciphering Egyptian possible c. Jean Francois Champollion i. Using personal names from the Stone, deciphers hieroglyphs 2. Predynastic Period a. Development of State and Writing, Unification of Egypt 3. Narmer Palette a. Unification of Egypt by southern king Narmer b. Narmer might be the first Pharaoh i. Menes was supposed to be the first however ii. Lack of artifacts with Menes name on them iii.Plenty with Narmer 4. Abydos – Royal Necropolis a. Narmer and other early rulers were buried here b. Dockets, inscribed labels, earliest examples of Egyptian writing 3200 BC c. Writing comes before Unifcation 5. Mastaba Tombs a. Simple two part tomb, comes fromArabic term mastabah for stone bench b. Top part contained offerings chapel and storage room, deep part was a burial shaft 6. Egypt’s 3 Dynasty 2686-13 BC Rulers a. Nebka b. Netjerykhet aka Djoser i. Moves capital to Memephis ii. Royal Necropolis at Saqqara iii.Step Pyramid c. Sekhemkhet d. Khaba e. Sanakht f. Huni 7. Step Pyramid of Djoser a. First time stone architecture had been used on such a vast scale in Egypt b. Belief that it was built for visibility to distinguish royal from lesser nobility c. First if its kind, thought to be designed by Imhotep d. Had tomb beneath it and other monumental structures for religious functions e. Originally pyramid started out as mastaba, however Djoser extended the monument over his tomb during his lifetime f. Step Pyramids come before True Pyramids i. True Pyramid was symbol of the sun ii.Step Pyramid was a gigantic stairway to heavan 8. 4 Dynasty 2613-2494 BC Rulers a. Sneferu b. Khufu (Cheops) c. Djedefra (Radjedef) d. Khafra (Chephren) e. Menkaura (Mycerinus) f. Shepseskaf 9. Funerary Complex – The True Pyramid a. Now Included: Funerary Temple ( on the east side of Pyramid), Processional Ramp, Valley Temple, Satellite Pyramid (south side) b. Started naming pyramids that described the Pharaoh King himself c. The processional ramp expressed the passing of the king from the world of the living (on the east) to the pyramid tomb (on the west d. Ibw – purification tent, per nefer – House of Regeneration e. After death king was washed in ibw and mummified in per nefer f. Primary function was to protect royal mummy 10. Dashur – Bent Pyramid a. Experiment by Sneferu b. Came after Step Pyramid but before True Pyramid c. Reduced inclination by 10 degrees during final third of contrustruction reducing size by 23.5 meters d. Architects probably did it to lighten weight to prevent collapse 11. Giza – The Great Pyramid a. Built by Khufu , son of Sneferu, one of the Seven Wonders b. Sarcophagus with no inscriptions or decorations is located by the western wall c. Nine slabs of granite weighing 200 tons compose the ceiling, relieving weight of the mass of pyramid above burial chamber d. Had boat pits and a disassembled boat 12. 5 Dynasty 2494-2345 BC Rulers a. Userkaf b. Sahure c. Neferirkare d. Shepseskare e. Raneferef f. Nyuserra g. Menkauhor h. Djedkare i. Unas 13. 6 Dynasty rulers 2345-2181 BC a. Teti b. Userkare c. Pepy I d. Merenre e. Pepy II f. Nitiqret th th 14. Pyramids of 5 and 6 dynasty a. Not as well constructed, pyramid reaches Final Form b. Starting with Unas, the interior burial chambers are covered with magical spells called pyramid texts describing the religious beliefs of the Old Kingdom c. The size of pyramids decline and the three pyramids of Giza are never equaled 15. Pyramid Summation a. Mastabas b. Stepped Pyramids i. The Stepped Pyramid of Djoser c. Failed attempts at constructing true pyramids i. Problem achieving the proper angle of inc
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