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COMPLETE Great Discoveries in Archaeology Notes: Part 5 - 4.0ed the final exam!

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CAS AR 100

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Neolithic 02/11/2014 Mesolithic­ period after the Ice Ages when populations were practicing  moving away from big game hunting begin to experiment around with new plants and animals Broad Spectrum Substistence­ experimenting with new foods The Neolithic (new stone age) occurs after the last glacial episode (start of the Holocene) development of agriculture Primary center­ places where the domestication of plants and animals took place old world: near east, east Asia, sub­Saharan Africa New World: Mexico, northwestern South America and eastern North America Theories on the Origins of Agriculture Any theory devised to explain the origins of agriculture must explain: Why plant and animal domestication occurred at roughly the same time in several different parts of the  world? Why did this transformation occur in such a brief period­ a few thousand years in the vast span of human  existence? The Neolithic represents a dramatic transformation *know what plants and animals were domesticated in each of  these areas Reserchers tend to focus on the Near East (the Fertile Crescent) when it comes to plant and animal  domestication The Fertile Crescent Bordering the Zagros and Tautus Mtns.  Animals domesticated: goats, pigs, sheep, grasses The Mesolithic in the Near East The final Mesolithic culture in the area where agriculture first appeared in the world is called the Natufian  (11,000­9000 BC) ‘Ain Mallaha, Isreal: A Natufian Village During this period, there was more tainfall, an increase in population and the emergence of permanent  communities (Sedentism) before domestication (opposite of the New World) Site located at a spring in the Jordan Valley of Isreal Round Houses  Storage bins More elaborate material cultural and early trade Querns for processing plants Ground stone plates, bowls, mortars and pestles Carved limestone figurines Rich flaked stone tool assemblage Animals: wild pig, deer, cattle, horse, gazelle, fish Graves Collective burial pits Grave goods are rare Few status differences Abu Hureyra, Syria 02/11/2014 Northwest of Red Sea Early Neolithic site Evidence of hearding and farming in the Near East Natufian climate was warmer and wetter at first Oak and pistachio 200­300 people year round occupation climate shifts to co
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