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Great Discoveries in Archaeology [COMPLETE REVIEW NOTES] - Exam 1&2 -- 4.0ed these exam

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Department
Archaeology
Course Code
CAS AR 100
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All

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First and Second Exam First Exam • Archaeology o Systematic study of the human past based on its material culture and  context forming the archaeological record o Goals: describe culture history; reconstruct past lifeways; explain cultural  process; conserve and interpret the past o Archaeological context­ particular position of an archaeological find in  space and time which can be established by measuring provenience,  matrix and association  • An excavation at archaeological sites is a technique used to uncover material  culture from the past. It might involve the destruction of the place. And it answers  questions about human activity. The main goal of archaeological interpretation is  to reconstruct past human behavior and to explain why and how culture changes.  • Australopithecus afarensis o Small brain (380­500 cc) o Large set of teeth o Bipedal o Long muscular arms and shorter legs o Had long thumbs and curled fingers (similar to an ape) o 4­2.8 million years ago o Key finds: Lucy, Laetoli footprints and the “First Family” • Hominin Characteristics o Bipedalism, brain capacity, caring for young (extension of childhood),  stone tool making and use; increase in body size; appearance of home  bases • Feature­ immovable structures, layers and pits o Houses (posts in the ground that indicate a house was once there) o Bison kill site where individuals hunted animals in a specific place by  driving them there o A layer of cobble stone which is a feature of a path • Population Replacement Theory o Homo sapiens evolved out of Africa and went to Eurasia and replaces  homo erectus. This is widely believed because homo Neanderthals and  homo sapiens coexisted for a period of time (evidence in Mount Carmel,  Israel) • Regional Continuity Model o Homo sapiens evolved in several regions out of earlier hominid  populations derived from homo erectus  • Culture­ the invented, taught, and learned patterns of human behavior which  include the ability to adapt • Laetoli Footprints o Found by Mary Leakey o 3 pairs of 70 footprints o Australopithecus afarensis individuals walked over volcanic sediment that  had yet to cool, leaving footprints to harden into rock.  o The footprints show that these individuals feet used a heel­to­toe walking  mechanism o The big toe was attached to the rest of the foot, being parallel intead of  sticking out like a thumb o They are bipedal individuals Second Exam • Old World (Africa, China, Middle East)­ Agriculture o Food processing equipment in the houses in Ain Mallaha, Israel o They found mortars and pestles (harvested wild pigs, cattle, marine  resources) o They harvest rye in Abu Hureyra   There are pit dwe
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