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Phylogeny Test Review

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Boston University
CAS BI 107
Sean Mullen

• Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a species or group of species • Phylogenetic Tree: a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms • systematics: a discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships, taxonomy: a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life, binomial: the two-part format for naming a species, consisting of the genus(group of organisms that have common characteristics- i.e. mus=mice) and specific epithet(species) • Life > Domain > Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species • Biosphere > Ecosystems > Communities > Populations > Organisms > Organs and Organ Systems > Tissues > Cells > Organelles > Molecules > Atoms • Biosphere – the entire population of earth inhabited by life, Ecosystem – all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact, Community – all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interactions, Population – a localized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed producing fertile offspring • Metamorphosis: developmental transformation that turns the animal into a juvenile that resembles an adult but isn’t sexual mature • Kingdoms vs Domains: kingdoms a taxon in the rank below domain; domain a taxonomic category above the kingdom level • Domain Bacteria: o A unicellular prokaryotic organism, which is a type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane bound organelles.  Major groups: Proteobacteria (gram negative), Chlamydias, Spirochetes, Cyanobacteria, Gram Positive Bacteria/ examples: E. Coli, Leptospira  3 main shapes: cocci, bacilli, spirilli/ some photosynthetic, can form colonies • DomainArchaea: o A unicellular prokaryotic organism that is capable of living in extreme conditions  Methanogens: organisms that produce methane as a waste product of the way they obtain energy; anaerobic, poisoned by O 2 use CO t2 oxidise H 2  Extremophiles: organisms that live in extreme environments • Extreme halophiles: live in highly saline (salty) environments • Extreme thermophiles: thrive in very hot environments • Domain Eukarya: o Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles and a defined nucleus. The domain is separated into 4 kingdoms:  i. Protista: Eukaryotic organisms that are not plant, animal or fungi • Protists: most are unicellular, very 1 eukaryotes, very basic multicellular forms- no tissues/organ, commonly aquatic, cells have true nucleus, reproduction- spores, cell division, sexual reproduction • red algae, plasmodium, Giardia intestinalis, Globigerina  ii. Fungi: Eukaryotes that absorb nutrients after decomposing organic material, heterotrophs (can’t make own food), extracellular digestion • mushrooms (i.e.Amanita), Arthrobotrys, yeasts, Penicillium, Aspergillus • cell walls made of complex sugar (chitin), not cellulose • exhibit diverse lifestyles- decomposers, parasites, mutualists (symbiotic relationship, both participants benefit)  iii. Plantae (Plants): Multicellular eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis, primary producers, cell walls made of cellulose, extra sugar stored as starch • vascular: complex vascular tissue system (cells joined into tubes transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body); seedless-ferns, horsetails/seeds-flowers, pine trees • nonvascular: no exte
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