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CAS BI 107 (66)
Quiz

Animal Test Review

7 Pages
152 Views

Department
Biology
Course Code
CAS BI 107
Professor
Sean Mullen

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Description
Animals • G.O.H.A.R.R.M o Growth, organization, homeostasis, adaptation, response to stimuli,  reproduction, movement • In order to stay alive they need to: o Obtain oxygen and nutrients o Fight of infection o Produce offspring • Natural Selection o Process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics  are more likely to survive and produce off spring than organisms  with other characteristics • Form Vs Function o Form = Anatomy: the STRUCTURE of an organism o Function = Physiology: the processes and functions of organisms • Exchange with Environment o Animals need to exchange materials (food, O , 2 0)2with the  environment o sac body plan: body walls are only two cells thick, facilitating  diffusion of materials o complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for  exchanging materials o interstitial fluid: fills space between cells, allows for the  movement of material into and out of cells • Organization o Cells­tissues­organs­organ systems­organism • Tissues o Epithelial Tissue  covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and  cavities within the body  cells are closely joined (packed tightly together)  cuboidal (like dice), columnar (like bricks on end),  squamous (like floor tiles) • simple (single cell layer), stratified (multiple tiers  of cells), or pseudostratified (a single layer of cells  of varying length)  Cuboidal: • Dice shaped • Specialized for secretion • Epithelium of kidney tubules and many glands  Simple Columnar: • Lines intestines • Secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients  Pseudostratified ciliated columnar: • Forms a mucous membrane that lines nasal  passages  • Beating cilia move the film of mucous along the  surface  Simple squamous: • thin and leaky • Functions in exchange of material by diffusion • lines blood vessels and the air sacs of the lungs,  where diffusion of nutrients and gases is critical  Stratified squamous: • Regenerates rapidly by cell division near basal  lamina • New cells are pushed outward, replacing those that  are sloughed off • found on the surfaces subject to abrasion, such as;  outer skin, linings of the esophagus, anus and  vagina o Connective Tissue  Binds and supports other tissues  Contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an  extracellular matrix  Matrix consists of fibres in a liquid, jellylike, or solid  foundation  Connective Tissue Fibers: • Collagenous fibres: provide strength and flexibility • Elastic fibres: stretch and snap back to their  original length • Reticular fibres: join connective tissue to adjacent  tissues  Loose connective tissue: • Most widespread connective tissue  • Collagenous, elastic and reticular fibres bind  epithelia to underlying tissues and hold organs in  place  Cartilage: • Strong and flexible support material • chondroitin sulphate: rubbery matrix made of  protein­carbohydrate complex  • chondrocytes: secrete collagen and chondroitin  sulphate that make cartilage a strong yet flexible  support material  Fibrous connective tissue: • Dense with collagenous fibres • Found in tendons (attach muscles to bones),  ligaments (connect bones to bones)  Adipose tissue: • Stores fat in adipose cells distributed throughout its  matrix • Pads and insulates body and stores fuel as fat  molecules • Each cell contains a large fat droplet   Adipose tissue: stores fat for insulation and fuel  Blood: composed of blood cells and cell fragments in  blood plasma  Bone: mineralised and forms the skeleton  Bone: • Mineralised connective tissue • Osteoblasts: bone forming cells, deposit a matrix of  collagen  Blood: • Has a liquid extracellular matrix called plasma o The plasma contains:  Erythrocytes (red blood cells) –  carry oxygen  Leukocytes (white blood cells) –  immune system  Platelets – responsible for blood  clotting • Red Blood Cells o Transport oxygen • White Blood Cells o Involved in immunity o Muscle Tissue  Consists of long cells called muscle fibres  Three types:  • Skeletal muscle  • Smooth muscle  • Cardiac muscle  Skeletal muscle (striated muscle): • Voluntary muscle movements • Arrangement of contractile units (sarcomeres) give  cells a striped (striated) appearance  • Multiple  nuclei per cell • Attached to bones  Smooth muscle: • Lacks striations • Involuntary contraction: found in the walls of the  digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries and other  internal organs • Single nucleus per cell  Cardiac Muscle: • Cells form contractile wall of the heart  • Striated • Involuntary • Cardiac muscle fibres branch and interconnect via  intercalated disks: relay signals from cell to cell 
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