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Chapter 11.1 notes.docx

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CAS BI 108
Francis Monette

BI108 Chapter 11 Notes: The Cell Cycle and Cell Division 11.1: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Division Division is the basis for: reproduction, growth, and repair/regeneration of tissues In order for a cell to divide four events must occur: 1. Reproductive Signal—initiates cell division; may originate inside or outside the cell 2. Replication of DNA—so that each new cell will have identical set of genes 3. Segregation—distributing DNAto each of two new cells 4. Cytokinesis—enzymes/organelles synthesized, added to plasma membrane, and contents are separated *chromosome: long, thin, DNA molecule with proteins attached to it Prokaryotes divide by binary fission For prokaryotes, cell division results in the reproduction of the entire single-celled organism. Binary Fission: Cell grows in size, replicates DNA, and then separates the cytoplasm/DNA into two new cells 1) Reproductive Signals: external factors are common signals. This includes environmental conditions and nutrient concentrations. Ex: E. coli, the “cell division machine” if abundance of carbohydrates are present, it can divide every 20 mins. Some stop division if nutrient levels are low. 2) Replication of DNA: chromosomes must be replicated so that each copy can find its way to each cell. Most prokaryotes have just one chromosome. • To fit the cell, DNA must be compacted. The DNA folds in on itself, positive charged (basic) proteins bind to negatively charged (acidic) proteins. Two regions of chromosome:
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