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Complete Intensive Cell Biology Notes Part 5 (4.0ed the final exam)

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CAS BI 213
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Exam 2 Study Guide 1.) Eukaryotic RNA polymerases require transcription factors to bind to the correct sequences. 2.) Promoters vs. Enhancers: Promoters bind to general transcription factors and facilitate basal transcription. Enhancers are bind-specific and require gene specific (chromatin makes DNA loop) transcription factors that increase the rate of transcription, enhancer sequence can go backwards or forwards and would still be recognized by the DNA. 3.) Define Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and mass spec 4.) siRNA inhibits gene expression by working against the activator 5.) Azacytadine increases gene expression in a gene regulated by methylation, because methylation decreases gene expression via condensing chromatin 6.) The 23S rRNAis the catalyst of peptide bond formation 7.) microRNA’s regulate translation by targeting specific RNA’s (bind to specific sequences of 3’ untranslated regions of target mRNA’s) 8.) Inhibiting eIF4E (binds to 5’ cap in RNA’s which regulates translation because translation factors recognize the 5’ cap). The mRNA in question has an internal ribosomal entry site. Inhibiting eif4e would have no effect. It would still be processed but just not by regulation of eif4e because the mRNA in question has a specific entry site. 9.) Proteases are responsible for protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds. First option: lysosomal proteins (digests proteins) so yes. Second option: mitochondrial proteins (responsible for packaging nuclear energy in cell) so no. Third option: nuclear proteins (digestive and proteases are in nucleus) so yes. Fourth option: ribosomal proteins (process RNA) so no. 10.) Located in phospholipid bilayer and it is option as glycoprotein if lipid modified. 11.) Ran is an transport regulating protein (GTP Binding ): siRNA would inhibit both import and export 12.) ER signaling sequence is on the N terminus so if it is deleted then the signal will go anywhere in the cell ( maybe degraded) but the ER 13.) 90% 14.) Operon is the operator sequence that has promoter and structural genes. When lack lactose, cannot bind to it so operon attaches to promoter site and inhibit transcription. When is available the lactose binds to the allosteric site of the repressor. 15.) Half of histones from on
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