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Final

CAS AN 102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Visual Acuity, Spatial Navigation, Color Vision

2 Pages
95 Views
Winter 2013

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
CAS AN 102
Professor
All
Study Guide
Final

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Primate Ranging and Conservation
Preferred food: Foods that are over-selected in relation to their availability
High quality (high in calories, low in fiber)
Often allows fast intake of calories
Processed more easily
Rare in environment, hard to locate (e.g. fruit)
Fallback food: High abundance, low quality foods
Low quality
Often hard to process
Abundant, easy to locate (e.g. leaves)
Evolutionary Consequences of Preferred and Fallback Foods
Adaptations for food harvesting based on preferred foods
General cognition
Spatial navigation
Locomotor adaptations
Visual acuity (color vision)
Olfaction
Adaptations for food processing based on fallback foods
Dental topography and enamel thickness
Gut length and morphology
Body size
Tool use
Diets similar when high food supply, diets diverge when food is scarce
Fallback Food and Dentition
During food abundence, no difference in hardness of foods despite thick enamel
During food scarcity mangabeys eat harder foods
Contest Competition: Individuals systematically exlude other individuals from resource
Occurs when food patches are clumped, small, and dfendable
Primates can monopolize the resource so there is direct competition
Scramble Competition: Individuals lose access to resources because others have
already found them
Occurs when food patches are dispersed, abundant, often lower value
Primates cannot monopolize the resource so they can't directly compete for it
Home range: spatial area that a group uses
Territory: home ranges that are actively patrolled and defended against conspecifics
(members of one's own species)
Core area: section of home range that a group frequently uses and is typically
associated with preferred resources such as feeding trees and sleeping sites
Day range: area within home range that is traversed in a day
Defend territory to maintain exclusive access to resources

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Description
Primate Ranging and Conservation Preferred food: Foods that are over-selected in relation to their availability • High quality (high in calories, low in fiber) • Often allows fast intake of calories • Processed more easily • Rare in environment, hard to locate (e.g. fruit) Fallback food: High abundance, low quality foods • Low quality • Often hard to process • Abundant, easy to locate (e.g. leaves) Evolutionary Consequences of Preferred and Fallback Foods • Adaptations for food harvesting based on preferred foods • General cognition • Spatial navigation • Locomotor adaptations • Visual acuity (color vision) • Olfaction Adaptations for food processing based on fallback foods • Dental topography and enamel thickness • Gut length and morphology • Body size • Tool use Diets similar when high food supply, diets diverge when food is scarce Fallback Food and Dentition • During food abundence, no difference in hardness of foods despite thick enamel • During food scarcity mangabeys eat harder foods Contest Competition: Individuals systematically exlude other individuals from resource ⁃ Occurs when food patches are clumped, small, and dfendable ⁃ Primates can monopolize the resource so there is direct competition Scramble Competition: Individuals lose access to resources because others have already found them ⁃ Occurs when food patches are dispersed
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