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Final

Human Biology, Behavior, and Evolution Notes PART 22 [COMPLETE]: 90% on final!

4 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
CAS AN 102
Professor
All

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Modern Homo sapiens
Evolved in Africa around 160kya
Spread around world 100-50kya
Have longer limbs than Neandertals and other hominins
Vertical forehead
Small face with protruding chin
Less robust post-cranial skeleton
Smaller brow ridges and nose
Small incisors
Pyramidal mastoid process (behind ear)
Definite chin
Early Homo sapiens in Africa
Herto (Ethiopia)
160kya
More robust facial features than later anatomically modern humans
(AMHs)
Cranial capacity 1450 cc
Does not have Neandertal traits (midface prognathism, wide nasal
opening)
Early Homo sapiens in Near East
Skhul Cave (Israel)
115kya
High cranial vault
Small anterior teeth
1400cc
Homo sapiens in Europe
Cro-Magnon (France)
30kya
Small anterior teeth
Female skull has very modern appearance (very flat brow ridges)
Males more robust
Homo sapiens in Australia
Kow Swamp (Australia)
13kya
Cranial traits not as modern (receding forehead, pronounced brow ridges)
Postcranial traits very modern (slender, long limbed)

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Description
Modern Homo sapiens Evolved in Africa around 160kya Spread around world 100-50kya Have longer limbs than Neandertals and other hominins Vertical forehead Small face with protruding chin Less robust post-cranial skeleton Smaller brow ridges and nose Small incisors Pyramidal mastoid process (behind ear) Definite chin Early Homo sapiens in Africa ⁃ Herto (Ethiopia) ⁃ 160kya ⁃ More robust facial features than later anatomically modern humans (AMHs) ⁃ Cranial capacity 1450 cc ⁃ Does not have Neandertal traits (midface prognathism, wide nasal opening) Early Homo sapiens in Near East ⁃ Skhul Cave (Israel) ⁃ 115kya ⁃ High cranial vault ⁃ Small anterior teeth ⁃ 1400cc Homo sapiens in Europe ⁃ Cro-Magnon (France) ⁃ 30kya ⁃ Small anterior teeth ⁃ Female skull has very modern appearance (very flat brow ridges) ⁃ Males more robust Homo sapiens in Australia ⁃ Kow Swamp (Australia) ⁃ 13kya ⁃ Cranial traits not as modern (receding forehead, pronounced brow ridges) ⁃ Postcranial traits very modern (slender, long limbed) Homo sapiens contemporaneous with other hominins for a portion of time • Complete Replacement Model ⁃ Out of Africa model ⁃ Homo sapiens arose in Africa ⁃ First wave: H. erectus moved out of Africa into Asia and Europe ⁃ H. heidelbergensis moved into Europe and evolved into Neandertals ⁃ Second wave: AMHs move into Europe and Asia, replacing other hominins ⁃ Distinct species, did not interbreed with existing hominins • • Partial Replacement Model • - Same as complete replacement but they did interbreed with existing hominins • • Regional Continuity Model • - Homo sapiens evolved independentally in all parts of the world • - Ancestors were hominins who previously occupied these regions - Multiregional model - Entensive gene flow made us one species Study of living people to determine Most
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