[CAS AR 100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (59 pages long)

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CAS AR 100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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9/3/13
AR100 Lecture #1
What is archeology?
Constantinople, 15th cent.
Ruins of Pergamon (an ancient Greek city on the west coast of Turkey)
Great wall of China, watercolor by Wm. Alexander, 1792
View of Angkor temples, Cambodia, 1866
o Artistically recording these areas inspired people around the world to be
interested
Archeology The systematic study of our human past, based on the investigation
of material culture and context, together forming the archeological record.
o Vital for archs to dig up a site so that all detailed info in observed and
recorded. Be able to understand the relationship between objects found.
Reconstruct in 3-D. Understand how human culture developed.
o Arch is approached in different ways based on country, US does it in small
scale and slowly, in China its giant and you dig a lot and bring in lots of
people.
o No dinosaurs (paleontology deals with this).
o Archs deals with human remains.
Culture
o The invented, taught, and learned patterns of human behavior. The extra-
somatic means of adaptation of a human group.
Adaptive and learned behaviors
Sir Edward Bennett Tylor “culture is that complex whole which
includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any
other capabilities and habits acquired by man form his society.”
Culture Terms
o Culture history, cultural process
Culture process is going further than cultural history, cultural
process of how cultures develop and change
o Archeological culture
Archeological manifestation of actual culture
o Cultural area
o Cultural resources
Things you can see and hold, but also some intangible like literary
traditions or song
o Cultural heritage
o Material culture
Material remains of the past
o Popular culture
Context (where it is found and what it is found with) is important to understand
objects purpose and archeological culture. Association helps with function and
dating and evidence we need for certainty.
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Goals of archeology
o Describe culture history
o Reconstruct past life ways
Arch can only find things that are still remaining at the arch site so
we’re getting a partial picture
o Explain cultural process
The change of culture over time
What happens when cultures come into contact with one another?
o Conserve and interpret the past (for the general public)
Many of these make the news, the public is interested in
unexpected finds
When ppl come to visit the site you have to deal with wear and tear
Types of Archeology
o Paleoanthropology
Human fossils, human evolution
o Prehistoric Arch
People who don’t have writing, hominids and onward
o Egyptology
Egypt’s earliest stages of cultures all to the pharonic periods (new
and old kingdom)
o Biblical Arch
Research places from religious text, biblical lands of the near east
o Classical Archeologists
Specialize in the worlds of Greece and Rome
o Historical Arch
Medieval and post-medieval, in US it’s colonial and post-colonial
arch.
o Industrial Arch
Arch of industrial sites, sites of production like the iron works in
Massachusetts
o Underwater Arch
Shipwrecks
People and objects together in one moment in time
o Maritime Arch
Not only shipwrecks but also beyond it, includes maritime
activities like trade.
Case study: Royal Port, Jamaica = pirate central the sunk, now an
underwater arch study
Material culture
o Preservation is key to what arch can recover
o Depending on chemistry and the make up of the object effects how it will
be preserved
Problems with preservation?
o The Blind Men and the Elephant 6 blind men research different parts of
the elephant and use what they know to put the pieces together to
determine what they have is an elephant
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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