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CAS BI 106 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Red Blood Cell, Deep Vein Thrombosis, Buffy CoatPremium


Department
Biology
Course Code
CAS BI 106
Professor
Elizabeth Co
Study Guide
Midterm

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Boston University
BI-106 Human Anatomy
Professor: Dr. Elizabeth Co
Exam 2
Exam Guide
Topics Included:
1. Blood
2. Heart
3. Vessels and Circulation
4. Lymphatics
5. Respiratory
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Topic 1 Blood
1. Remember the following terms
a. Heme/hema - of blood
b. Antigen - usually a protein or molecule that elicits an immune response in the body. It’s
opposite is..
c. Antibody - proteins that B lymphocytes immune system creates to fight the antigens
that they detect
d. Intracellular Fluid - fluid that is within the cell
e. Extracellular Fluid - fluid that is directly outside the cell
f. Interstitial Fluid - fluid that is within tissues where cells are found
g. Centrifuge - a process by which a solution is shaken vigorously around to determine the
various different parts of the solution. (e.g. when blood is placed in the centrifuge it’s
separated into plasma, buffy coat and erythrocytes)
2. Blood is made up of
a. Erythrocytes - red blood cells
b. Buffy Coat - white blood cells or leukocytes as well as platelets
c. Plasma - fluid
d. Formed elements - include the cellular matter of the blood minus the plasma
3. Blood Functions
a. Transportation - blood is responsible for transporting materials such as oxygen, carbon
dioxide, other nutrients, waste and hormones around the body
b. Regulation - maintains body temperature, pH and the regulation of fluids
c. Protection - white blood cells serve an immune function by fighting infections and
foreign substances in body.
4. Blood Plasma
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a. What makes blood seem like a liquid
b. made up of 92% water, 7% proteins, and solutes
c. Plasma without cells is called serum
d. Proteins are made by the liver and serve to create an osmotic balance (water regulation
between blood and tissues), movement of hormones ions and fats, and form blood
clots
5. Plasma Vs. Interstitial Fluid
a. Both connect cells to tissues. Plasma in the blood can move from the blood into the
interstitial fluid of tissues if there is a need for fluid there.
b. Plasma always has a higher amount oxygen than carbon dioxide because it forms a
direct link from the lungs to carry oxygen to the rest of the body.
i. As plasma moves throughout the body oxygen is traded with carbon dioxide in
the tissues.
ii. The whole process is started over again once the blood reaches back to the
lungs to release carbon dioxide collected and gain more oxygen through
respiration
6. Formed elements - make up the buffy coat (platelets and leukocytes) and the erythrocytes of
the whole blood
a. Erythrocytes make up 99% of formed elements
b. Hematocrit - amount in percent of erythrocytes in the whole blood
i. Women have less erythrocytes on average than men, this is due to the amount
of blood lost during the menstrual cycle
ii. Higher elevation requires more percentage of red blood cells because the
amount of available oxygen to take in per average breath decreases, increasing
the bodies need to pump blood faster and the amount of red blood cells to
capture the available oxygen
iii. However, more blood cells can make the blood thicker and lead to a blood clot
which increases the risk of heart attack and stroke
7. Remember the following terms
a. Centrifuge - a process by which a solution is shaken vigorously around to determine the
various different parts of the solution. (e.g. when blood is placed in the centrifuge it’s
separated into plasma, buffy coat and erythrocytes)
b. Blood Smear - another technique where the blood can be analyzed by applying a
sample to a slide under a microscope
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