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Animal Test Review

7 Pages

Course Code
CAS BI 107
Sean Mullen

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Animals G.O.H.A.R.R.M
oGrowth, organization, homeostasis, adaptation, response to stimuli,
reproduction, movement
In order to stay alive they need to:
oObtain oxygen and nutrients
oFight of infection
oProduce offspring
Natural Selection
oProcess in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics
are more likely to survive and produce off spring than organisms
with other characteristics
Form Vs Function
oForm = Anatomy: the STRUCTURE of an organism
oFunction = Physiology: the processes and functions of organisms
Exchange with Environment
oAnimals need to exchange materials (food, O2, H20) with the
osac body plan: body walls are only two cells thick, facilitating
diffusion of materials
ocomplex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for
exchanging materials
ointerstitial fluid: fills space between cells, allows for the
movement of material into and out of cells
oCells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organism
oEpithelial Tissue
covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and
cavities within the body
cells are closely joined (packed tightly together)
cuboidal (like dice), columnar (like bricks on end),
squamous (like floor tiles)
simple (single cell layer), stratified (multiple tiers
of cells), or pseudostratified (a single layer of cells
of varying length)
Dice shaped
Specialized for secretion
Epithelium of kidney tubules and many glands
Simple Columnar:
Lines intestines
Secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar:
Forms a mucous membrane that lines nasal
Beating cilia move the film of mucous along the
Simple squamous:
thin and leaky
Functions in exchange of material by diffusion
lines blood vessels and the air sacs of the lungs,
where diffusion of nutrients and gases is critical
Stratified squamous:
Regenerates rapidly by cell division near basal
New cells are pushed outward, replacing those that
are sloughed off
found on the surfaces subject to abrasion, such as;
outer skin, linings of the esophagus, anus and
oConnective Tissue
Binds and supports other tissues
Contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an
extracellular matrix
Matrix consists of fibres in a liquid, jellylike, or solid
Connective Tissue Fibers:
Collagenous fibres: provide strength and flexibility
Elastic fibres: stretch and snap back to their
original length
Reticular fibres: join connective tissue to adjacent
Loose connective tissue:
Most widespread connective tissue
Collagenous, elastic and reticular fibres bind
epithelia to underlying tissues and hold organs in
Strong and flexible support material
chondroitin sulphate: rubbery matrix made of
protein-carbohydrate complex
chondrocytes: secrete collagen and chondroitin
sulphate that make cartilage a strong yet flexible
support material
Fibrous connective tissue:

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Animals • G.O.H.A.R.R.M o Growth, organization, homeostasis, adaptation, response to stimuli,  reproduction, movement • In order to stay alive they need to: o Obtain oxygen and nutrients o Fight of infection o Produce offspring • Natural Selection o Process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics  are more likely to survive and produce off spring than organisms  with other characteristics • Form Vs Function o Form = Anatomy: the STRUCTURE of an organism o Function = Physiology: the processes and functions of organisms • Exchange with Environment o Animals need to exchange materials (food, O , 2 0)2with the  environment o sac body plan: body walls are only two cells thick, facilitating  diffusion of materials o complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for  exchanging materials o interstitial fluid: fills space between cells, allows for the  movement of material into and out of cells • Organization o Cells­tissues­organs­organ systems­organism • Tissues o Epithelial Tissue  covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and  cavities within the body  cells are closely joined (packed tightly together)  cuboidal (like dice), columnar (like bricks on end),  squamous (like floor tiles) • simple (single cell layer), stratified (multiple tiers  of cells), or pseudostratified (a single layer of cells  of varying length)  Cuboidal: • Dice shaped • Specialized for secretion • Epithelium of kidney tubules and many glands  Simple Columnar: • Lines intestines • Secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients  Pseudostratified ciliated columnar: • Forms a mucous membrane that lines nasal  passages  • Beating cilia move the film of mucous along the  surface  Simple squamous: • thin and leaky • Functions in exchange of material by diffusion • lines blood vessels and the air sacs of the lungs,  where diffusion of nutrients and gases is critical  Stratified squamous: • Regenerates rapidly by cell division near basal  lamina • New cells are pushed outward, replacing those that  are sloughed off • found on the surfaces subject to abrasion, such as;  outer skin, linings of the esophagus, anus and  vagina o Connective Tissue  Binds and supports other tissues  Contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an  extracellular matrix  Matrix consists of fibres in a liquid, jellylike, or solid  foundation  Connective Tissue Fibers: • Collagenous fibres: provide strength and flexibility • Elastic fibres: stretch and snap back to their  original length • Reticular fibres: join connective tissue to adjacent  tissues  Loose connective tissue: • Most widespread connective tissue  • Collagenous, elastic and reticular fibres bind  epithelia to underlying tissues and hold organs in  place  Cartilage: • Strong and flexible support material • chondroitin sulphate: rubbery matrix made of  protein­carbohydrate complex  • chondrocytes: secrete collagen and chondroitin  sulphate that make cartilage a strong yet flexible  support material  Fibrous connective tissue: • Dense with collagenous fibres • Found in tendons (attach muscles to bones),  ligaments (connect bones to bones)  Adipose tissue: • Stores fat in adipose cells distributed throughout its  matrix • Pads and insulates body and stores fuel as fat  molecules • Each cell contains a large fat droplet   Adipose tissue: stores fat for insulation and fuel  Blood: composed of blood cells and cell fragments in  blood plasma  Bone: mineralised and forms the skeleton  Bone: • Mineralised connective tissue • Osteoblasts: bone forming cells, deposit a matrix of  collagen  Blood: • Has a liquid extracellular matrix called plasma o The plasma contains:  Erythrocytes (red blood cells) –  carry oxygen  Leukocytes (white blood cells) –  immune system  Platelets – responsible for blood  clotting • Red Blood Cells o Transport oxygen • White Blood Cells o Involved in immunity o Muscle Tissue  Consists of long cells called muscle fibres  Three types:  • Skeletal muscle  • Smooth muscle  • Cardiac muscle  Skeletal muscle (striated muscle): • Voluntary muscle movements • Arrangement of contractile units (sarcomeres) give  cells a striped (striated) appearance  • Multiple  nuclei per cell • Attached to bones  Smooth muscle: • Lacks striations • Involuntary contraction: found in the walls of the  digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries and other  internal organs • Single nucleus per cell  Cardiac Muscle: • Cells form contractile wall of the heart  • Striated • Involuntary • Cardiac muscle fibres branch and interconnect via  intercalated disks: relay signals from cell to cell 
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