CAS BI 315 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Neuron, Hormone, Final Fantasy Xiii

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
School
Boston University
Department
Biology
Course
CAS BI 315
Professor
CAS BI 315
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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I. Physiology
A. Study of how living organisms function
B. How anatomical structure is suited for function
C. How different parts have integrated functions
D. Physiology - study of healthy organisms, we will occasionally look at disease
states (pathophysiology)
II. Review
A. Organisms divided into
1. Organ systems (urinary system)
2. Organs (kidney)
3. Functional unit of organ (nephron)
a) Smallest unit that retains the characteristics of the organ
b) Muscle = organ; single muscle fiber still is able to contract
4. Tissue (epithelial tissue)
5. Cell (individual epithelial cell)
6. Organelle (mitochondrion)
B. Cells
1. Make up tissues
2. Go through divisions and growth
3. Differentiation = specialized cell types that make up the tissues
a) Epithelial cells
(1) Make up organs
b) Connective cells
(1) Manufacturers of fibers - weave things together
c) Neuron cells
d) Muscle cells
III. Four Tissue Types
A. Epithelium
1. Protection, secretion, absorption
2. Barrier to diffusion/osmosis
3. Found lining the inside of every organ, vessel, etc
4. Found as outermost layer of skin
5. Anchored by basement membrane (connective tissue)
a) Epithelium and then usually connective under
b) Epithelium are avascular - have no blood vessels
(1) So need to have close access to connective tissue to have
close access to blood
(2) Space inside hollow structure is called lumen
6. Polar - have 2 distinct sides
a) Apical (free side)
b) Basal (anchored side)
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B. Connective Tissue
1. Connecting, anchoring, supporting, protecting
2. Always has relationship with epithelium
3. Made up of fibers, cells, extracellular matrix
a) fibers : collagen and elastin
b) ECM: from liquid to solid
(1) Water = blood
(2) Harder = cartilage or bone
4. Blood, cartilage, bone, tendon, adipose are all types of connective tissues
C. Muscle Tissue
1. cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
2. All contract, but organization of the tissues and properties of the cells are
different
3. Smooth lines blood vessels and organs
4. Cardiac in heart
a) Oriented in circle - contract pulls and squeezes blood out, relax
fills with blood
D. Nervous Tissue
1. Neurons and cells that support them
IV. Tissue -> Organs
V. Body Fluid
A. Body is 55-60% water (male) - where is it?
1. Higher for females and kids - around 65%
B. intracellular fluid (intra=within)
C. extracellular fluid (extra=outside)
1. Plasma (20-25% of ECF)
2. Interstitial fluid - around/between cells
D. Etymology that means “tissue” (underlined below)
1. HiSTOlogy
2. InterSTItial
E. Separate compartments but can share water from each other
1. Compartments - intracellular, interstitial, extracellular (includes interstitial
and plasma)
2. Dynamic equilibrium - diffusion with limitations
F. Body Fluid Compartments
1. The barrier (or lack of) between compartments determines rate and
amount of movement
2. Ex: relative permeability of blood vessel wall and GI organ wall
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Document Summary

Physiology: study of how living organisms function, how anatomical structure is suited for function, how different parts have integrated functions, physiology - study of healthy organisms, we will occasionally look at disease states (pathophysiology) Anatomy of a negative feedback loop production on: stimulus (change to internal environment) sensor (change is detected by receptor/sensor) control center (change is compared to set point - ex: brain) . Effector (muscles or glands) change is corrected. Biochemistry of negative feedback: negative feedback systems are often used to control production, secretion, or activation of a chemical product (ex: testosterone) Feedback system control center: all homeostatic mechanisms involve coordination and communication, nervous system or via secreted chemicals. Andes mountain natives: control s sleep-wake cycle, body temp, hormone concentrations in blood, excretion of ions in urine, and others, 24 hour clock, anatomy involved: hypothalamus, pineal gland (secretes melatonin) targets of. Influenced by: light, external temp, meal timing, social cues.

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