CAS PO 141 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Mancur Olson, Punctuated Equilibrium, Public Good

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Published on 15 Mar 2016
School
Boston University
Department
Political Science
Course
CAS PO 141
Professor
Page:
of 7
Casual&Stories&(Stone&1989)
Intended
Unintended
Unguided
!"#$%&'#%()#%*+"
,##'-"&.%()#%*+"
Purposeful
/&."&.'0&%()#%*+"
Willfully&or&knowingly&causing&harm.&
Ex.&Conspiracy,&doing&things&on&purpose&
Ex.&Oppression
Action&taken&by&a&group&of&individuals&for&a&common&goal
a.
What&is&collective& action
A.
Not&all&agree&on&same&goal
i.
Group&must&decide&on&goals
a.
All&agree&on&goal,&we&all&have&to&decide&how&to&coordinate&our&
efforts&with&other&people's&efforts.&
i.
Ex.&Small&music&groups&dont&need&a&conductor,&because&they&can&
communicate&amoungst&eachother&since&its&so&few&of&them
Coordination&problems
b.
Idea&that&individuals,&what&is&individually&rational&becomes&
collectively& rational.&
i.
Prisoner's&dilemmas
c.
Barriers&to&collective& action
B.
Collective& Action&Problems
Notes&-Feb&23&(Review)
Tuesday,& February& 23,&2016
11:08&AM
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a)
Collectively&rational:&remain&silent,&collective&jail&time:&2&year
ii.
But&it&is&irrational&because&both&will&want&to&talk.&Only&ok&if&both&are&
confident&that&the&other&wont&speak.&
Ex.&Street&lamps,&available&to&everyone.&
a)
No&street&lighting,&etc.&
b)
Problem:&Public&good&not&provided
1)
Affects&large&groups
2)
Ex.&Those&who&vote.&
Getting&a&sticker&or&balloon&after&you&vote&since&
voting&is&seen&as&a&burden
Benefit&given&to&only&those&who&participate.&
a)
Selective&incentives
3)
Free&Rider&Problem&(Mancur&Olson)
A.
Ex.&Herdsmen&raise&cattle,&too&many&&people&
raising&cattle,&then&the&pasture&gets&destroyed&
because&a&lot&of&animals&are&feeding&off&of&it.
i)
Can&make&regulations,&limit&number&of&cattle
ii)
Public&good&exists,&but&problem&is&that&it&will&be&
exploited
a)
Problem:&Exploitation&of&a&public&good&
1)
Tragedy&of&the&commons
B.
Types&of&Prisoners'&Dilemma
Punctuated&equilibrium:&Baumgartner&and&Jones
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Punctuated&equilibrium:&Baumgartner&and&Jones
How&advising&
Policy&subsystem&and&policy&monopoly
Difference&between&the&two
Incrementalism:
Serial&processing&vs.&parallel&processing
Humans&vs.&governments&(organizations,&companies,&etc.)
Policy&subsystems:&small&group&of&specialized&people&who&are&not&
representatives&of&the&general&public
Policy&monopoly-dominated&by&one&player
Control&problem&definition&(also&policy&subsystem)
3$"&45$6)-0)'++*"+)7".)801"-)9208):0('#6)+*;+6+."8+)<=>?).0)8%#20@:0('.'#%()
'&+.'.*.'0&+)<!/?A
Some&type&of&change&in&the&Policy&image,&outside&of&subsystem.&
1.
Social&movements&(in&contesting&the&policy&image)
2.
Note:&Event&that&moves&an&issue&from&PS&to&mI&can&be&
large&(like&focusing&events&in&Kingdon's&world)&or&small&
(minor&events&can&add&up&over&time)
Issues&get&redefined,&new&actors&feel&qualified&to&use&their&power.&Etc.&
3.
Reasons:
Subsystem&politics&=&politics&of&equilibrium&(in&stasis,&no&major&changes)
-
Macro-politics&=&politics&of&punctuation&(jumps&in&changes)
-
In&sum:
In&order&to&engage&in&parallel&processing&government&make&policy&subsystems
Disproportionate3Information3processing helps&to&explain&why&we&see&patterns&
of&punctuated&equilibria&in&policy&making
I.
Difference&is&that&uncertainty&is&that&you're&not&sure&what&it&
means.
1)
Uncertainty
i.
Ambiguity
ii.
Signal:&some&detectable&change&in&what&is&happening&'out&there"
1.
Information3Processing:&collecting,&assembling,&interpreting,&and&prioritizing&
signals&from&the&environment.&
II.
Disproportionate&Information&Processing&(Baumgartner&and&Jones)
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Document Summary

Inadvertent cause, unintended consequences of willed human action. Action taken by a group of individuals for a common goal. All agree on goal, we all have to decide how to coordinate our efforts with other people"s efforts. Small music groups don"t need a conductor, because they can communicate amoungst eachother since its so few of them c. Idea that individuals, what is individually rational becomes collectively rational. a) ii. Collectively rational: remain silent, collective jail time: 2 year. But it is irrational because both will want to talk. Only ok if both are confident that the other wont speak. Getting a sticker or balloon after you vote since voting is seen as a burden. Public good exists, but problem is that it will be exploited i) ii) Herdsmen raise cattle, too many people raising cattle, then the pasture gets destroyed because a lot of animals are feeding off of it.