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[CAS PS 544] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (58 pages long)


Department
Psychological & Brain Sciences
Course Code
CAS PS 544
Professor
Amanda Tarullo
Study Guide
Midterm

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BU
CAS PS 544
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PS544: Lecture 1: Brain Development (Part 1)
1. Prenatal Development
a. Prenatal Stages:
a.i. Zygotes: conception to implantation (2 wks)
a.i.1. Blastocyst: By 4th day
a.i.1.a. No specialization, exact copies of itself, equipotential to
differentiate, stem cells
a.i.1.b. Migrates from ovary to uterus through fallopian tubes
http://www.78stepshealth.us/plasma-membrane/female-sex-organs-produce-eggs-receive-sperm-and-
nurture-the-embryo.html
a.i.2. Implantation (1 wk)
a.i.2.a. <50% of zygotes make it this far
a.i.2.a.i. Most common time for things to go wrong
a.i.2.b. Burrows into lining and differentiates
a.i.2.c. Now physical connection to mom through implantation
a.i.2.d. Binging on alcohol more dangerous at 10 wks than 5
a.i.3. Gastrulation (by 2nd Week)
a.i.3.a. Gastrulation: cells differentiate into outer cell mass
(support system) and inner cell mass
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http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/B/blastocyst.html
a.i.3.b. The inner cell mass has 3 layers:
a.i.3.b.i. Top layer (ectoderm) – becomes nervous system and
face
a.i.3.b.ii. Middle layer (mesoderm) – becomes bones, muscles,
organs
a.i.3.b.iii. Bottom layer (endoderm) – becomes other organs
a.i.3.c. Neural Tube Formed by Day 24
a.i.3.c.i. Neural tube eventually develops into Nervous System
a.i.3.c.ii. Defects:
a.i.3.c.ii.1. Cortex doesn’t form
a.i.3.c.ii.2. Spina bifida: back end of tube fails to
close, baby’s skin won’t close over spinal cord
a.i.3.c.ii.2.a.How Spina Bifida decreased
a.i.3.c.ii.2.b.1990s – discovered link
between folic acid and defect
a.i.3.c.ii.2.c. Warning people did not work
a.i.3.c.ii.2.d.The neural tube forms before
most people know they are pregnant
and definitely before they visit OB-GYN,
unless they were actively trying and saw
OB-GYN before they may not be aware
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