Chapter 1: The Quantum World
• Dalton:Atoms = Spherical balls
• JJ Thomson = Cathode Rays (Electrons are negatively charged particles), Electron ratio
• Millikan = Oil Spray (Determined charge on one electron)
• Rutherford =All electrons were in one ring around nucleus
oGeiger + Marsden = Mass concentrated in center, volume spread out (Shot alpha
particles)
• Spectroscopy –Analysis of the light emitted or absorbed by substances
• 1Hz = 1s -1
• Amplitude = Height of wave above center line
2
• Intensity(Brightness) = Amplitude
• Wavelength x Frequency = Speed of light (2.998 X 10 m/s) 8
• As wavelength increases, frequency decreases
• As wavelength decreases, frequency increases
• Balmer Series n = 1 (n = 324,5…) = VISIBLE LIGHT
• Lyman Series n = 1 (n = 223,4…) = ULTRAVIOLET
• Paschen Series n = 1 (n = 526,7…) = INFARED
• ***Rydberg Equation***
• Absorbed = Going to higher energy levels
• Emitted = Going to lower energy levels
• Black Body Radiation = Higher Temps Shorter Wavelengths Higher Frequency
Greater Intensity
• Wien’s Law T(λ ) = 2.9K•mm
max
• Photoelectric Effect Ejection of electrons from a metal when its surface is exposed to
ultraviolet radiation
• E = hv
• Photons = Packets of energy = Intensity • *** deBroglie Wavelength ***
• KE = hv - ᶲ
• Slope of line = h
• X-intercept = Threshold Frequency = Workfunction
• Wave-Particle Duality As mass + velocity increase, wavelength decreases
• Constructive Interference – If peaks coincide (Amplitude of wave is enhanced) Bright
• Destructive Interference – If peaks do not coincide Dark
• Wavelength = (Plank’s Constant)/(Mass x Velocity)
• Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Both the location and momentum of a subatomic
particle cannot be known simultaneously
• ∆p x ∆x ≥ (h/4pi) ∆p = Uncertainty in Momentum(m∆v) ; ∆x = Uncertainty in Position
• Ψ = Wavefunction
oBorn Interpretation The probability of finding the particle in region is proportional
to the value of Ψ (Probability Density) in that region
oE =n(n h )/(8mL ) n≠0
oAs Lincreases, ∆E decreases, and E decrenses
oHigher energy levels = Greater Frequency = Shorter Wavelengths
oLevel of lowest energy = Zero point energy
oDegenerate Energy Levels = Levels that have the same energy
Different quantum numbers (ex: (1,2,1) and (2,1,1) )
oIonized Energy Level n = ∞
oGround State n = 1
Chapter 2: Quantum Mechanics inAction –Atoms
• r = Radius (Distance from center)
• θ = Colatitude (Angle from Z-axis)
• ϕ = Longitude (Angle from X-axis) • Radial Wavefunction x Angular Wavefunction = Ψ (r,θ,ϕ)
• Quantum Numbers
on = Principal Quantum # Energy + Size (n=1,2,3…)
ol = OrbitalAngular Momentum # (l = 0,1,…n-1) Shape
om =lMagnetic Quantum Number (m = -l,..0…+l)
om =sMagnetic Spin Quantum Number (m = ± ½ ) s
• Hydrogen Atom Only n matters for amount of energy (ex: 3s and 3d have same energy)
• Higher shells still have a low probability of being close to nucleus
• Total #

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