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# Exam 1 Review.docx

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School
Department
Chemistry
Course
CAS CH 109
Professor
Sean Elliott
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1: The Quantum World • Dalton:Atoms = Spherical balls • JJ Thomson = Cathode Rays (Electrons are negatively charged particles), Electron ratio • Millikan = Oil Spray (Determined charge on one electron) • Rutherford =All electrons were in one ring around nucleus oGeiger + Marsden = Mass concentrated in center, volume spread out (Shot alpha particles) • Spectroscopy –Analysis of the light emitted or absorbed by substances • 1Hz = 1s -1 • Amplitude = Height of wave above center line 2 • Intensity(Brightness) = Amplitude • Wavelength x Frequency = Speed of light (2.998 X 10 m/s) 8 • As wavelength increases, frequency decreases • As wavelength decreases, frequency increases • Balmer Series  n = 1 (n = 324,5…) = VISIBLE LIGHT • Lyman Series  n = 1 (n = 223,4…) = ULTRAVIOLET • Paschen Series  n = 1 (n = 526,7…) = INFARED • ***Rydberg Equation*** • Absorbed = Going to higher energy levels • Emitted = Going to lower energy levels • Black Body Radiation = Higher Temps  Shorter Wavelengths  Higher Frequency  Greater Intensity • Wien’s Law  T(λ ) = 2.9K•mm max • Photoelectric Effect Ejection of electrons from a metal when its surface is exposed to ultraviolet radiation • E = hv • Photons = Packets of energy = Intensity • *** deBroglie Wavelength *** • KE = hv - ᶲ • Slope of line = h • X-intercept = Threshold Frequency = Workfunction • Wave-Particle Duality As mass + velocity increase, wavelength decreases • Constructive Interference – If peaks coincide (Amplitude of wave is enhanced)  Bright • Destructive Interference – If peaks do not coincide  Dark • Wavelength = (Plank’s Constant)/(Mass x Velocity) • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle  Both the location and momentum of a subatomic particle cannot be known simultaneously • ∆p x ∆x ≥ (h/4pi) ∆p = Uncertainty in Momentum(m∆v) ; ∆x = Uncertainty in Position • Ψ = Wavefunction oBorn Interpretation  The probability of finding the particle in region is proportional to the value of Ψ (Probability Density) in that region oE =n(n h )/(8mL )  n≠0 oAs Lincreases, ∆E decreases, and E decrenses oHigher energy levels = Greater Frequency = Shorter Wavelengths oLevel of lowest energy = Zero point energy oDegenerate Energy Levels = Levels that have the same energy  Different quantum numbers (ex: (1,2,1) and (2,1,1) ) oIonized Energy Level  n = ∞ oGround State  n = 1 Chapter 2: Quantum Mechanics inAction –Atoms • r = Radius (Distance from center) • θ = Colatitude (Angle from Z-axis) • ϕ = Longitude (Angle from X-axis) • Radial Wavefunction x Angular Wavefunction = Ψ (r,θ,ϕ) • Quantum Numbers on = Principal Quantum #  Energy + Size (n=1,2,3…) ol = OrbitalAngular Momentum # (l = 0,1,…n-1) Shape om =lMagnetic Quantum Number (m = -l,..0…+l) om =sMagnetic Spin Quantum Number (m = ± ½ ) s • Hydrogen Atom  Only n matters for amount of energy (ex: 3s and 3d have same energy) • Higher shells still have a low probability of being close to nucleus • Total #
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