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COM CO 101 (102)

Exam 1 Review

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Core Courses
COM CO 101
Tammy Vigil

Exam 1 Review Updated Oct 2, 2013 Chapter 1 • There are at least 3 factors to consider which response to use (choose most appropriate behavior) the context, your goal, and the other person • Cognitive Complexity: ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue (ingredient of com. competence) • Self-monitering: process of paying close attention to one's behavior and using these observations to shape the way one behaves they are able to separate part of their consciousness and observe their behavior from a detached viewpoint • Key to successful communication: share an adequate amount of information in a skillful manner • More communication is not always better • Meanings are in people, not words • Communication is neither simple nor easy Chapter 2 • All types (dialects) of language posses the same characteristics of language Language: A collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals \ • Symbols: arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator's thoughts (not all spoken/written) • Symbols are more than just labels: They are he way we experience the world. • Meaning in language isn't in the words themselves, but rather in the way people make sense of them • Words don't mean; people do--and often in widely different ways • Language is Rule Governed Phonological Rules: govern how words sound when pronounced Syntactic Rules: govern the structure of language Semantic Rules: deal with the meaning of specific words 1 Misunderstandings can occur when words can be interpreted more than one way Pragmatic Rules: govern how people use language in everyday interaction, which communication theorists have characterizes as a series of speech acts 1 Involve how words are understood and used (male boss complimenting female associate) Language Shapes Attitude • Naming: They shape the way others think of us, the way we view ourselves, and the way we act • Credibility: speech style influences perception • Status: the power of speech to influence status is a fact Factors: accent, choice of words, speech rate, and even apparent age of speaker • Sexism and Racism: power of language to shape attitudes goes beyond individual cases and influences how we perceive entire groups of people Generic he/she Language Reflects Attitudes • Power: a number of language patterns that add to, or detract from, a speaker's ability to influence others, as well as reflecting how a speaker feels about his or her degree of control over a situation • Affiliation: language can be a way of building and demonstrating solidarity with others 1 Convergence: linguistic accommodtions; using the same vocabulary sets to set yourself apart from others 2 Divergence: speaking in a way that sets you apart from others • Linguistic intergroup bias: relfects whther or not we regard others as part of our in- group (like them=positive remarks) • Attraction and Interest: Social customs discourage usf rom expressing like or dislike in many situations. (the cake you made me tastes terrible) 1 Demonstrative Pronoun Choice: these/those 2 Negation: it's good/it's not bad 3 Sequential Placement: Dick and Jane/Jane and Dick • Responsibility: language can reveal the speaker's willingness to accept responsibility for a message 1 More on pg. 36 Language of Misunderstandings • Equivocal Language: Equivocal words have more than one correct dictionary definition • Relative Words: Gain their meaning by comparison (school large or small, depends on what it's compared to) • Slang and Jargon: Slang is language used by a group of people whose members belong to similar coculture or other group. Regionalisms are understood by people who live in one geographic area but that are incomprehensible to outsiders. Jargons are specialized bocaulary that functions as a kind of shorthand for people with common backgrounds and experience (ollie, grind) • Overly Abstract Language: most objects, events, and ideas can be described with varying degrees of specificity (book/textbook/etc) Abstraction ladder: number of descriptions of the same thing Abstract language: speech that refers to events or objects only vaguely, can confuse others Behavioral Descriptions: move down the abstract ladder to identify specific, observable phenomenon being discussed 1 Thorough Description Should Discuss 1 Who is involved? 2 In what circumstances does the behavior occur? 3 What behaviors are involved? Disruptive Language • Confusing facts and opinions, opinion statements • Confusing facts and inferences Infernential Statements: conclusions arrived at from an interpretation of evidence • Emotive Language: words that sound as if they're describing something when they are really announcing the speakers' attitude toward something • Equphemisms: pleasant term used to substitute for a less pleasant one (senior citizen/old) • Equivocation: vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way, intentionally ambiguous speech, used to avoid lying and telling a painful truth • Verbal communication styles Direct-Indirect Elaborate-Succinct Formal-Informal • Linguistic Relativism: notion that the wordviewof a culture is shaped ad reflected by the language its members speak (eskimos have a hundred words for what we call snow) • Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: language spoken by the Hopi represents a view of reality that is dramatically different from more familiar tongues, linguistic differences Chapter 3 • Scholars claim nonverbal are more important than verbal Make up most of the majority of the message It is omnipresent, every communication act includes a nonverbal component, nonverbals are part of every communicative message They are trusted over verbal when the two channels conflict Nonverbal Codes • Kinesics: gestures, ee contact, body position 1 Emblems: body movements that carry meaning in and of themselves. 2 They stand alone without a verbal accompaniment and still convey a sclera me
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