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HI266 Class Notes Part 1.pdf

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Department
History
Course
CAS HI 266
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All Professors
Semester
Fall

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HI266 Class Notes Part 1 — September & October French Revolution & Napoleon September 3, 2013 The Problem of the French Revolution What is a revolution? -Change in system, change in beliefs, change in opinion, change in power structure -Social and political -Non-violent: industrial, velvet -How to distinguish revolutions • French revolution provoked all changes -- more than just radical, it had social and political changes beyond just France • Easier to make a revolution and topple the old structure, than to figure out what to do with them afterwards 1989 revolution in Eastern Europe started off with high hopes for democracy -- eastern europe • was not ready for democracy • Confusion of aims and acting on behalf of other people • Economic crisis always come with revolutions • Revolutions can be for equality, for liberty needs -- often begins with social questions • Revolutions can never be analyzed in simple political terms, involves way more beyond that Phases of the Revolution • 1787-1789 attempts to reform absolute monarchy • Ends with the Fall of the Bastille (July 14, 1789) -- first violence of the revolutions, first intervenes of the revolution, the climax, first actions • 1789 - 1792 attempts to create a constitutional monarchy (the ‘...now what’ moment) -- deciding what to do, looking for a liberal monarchy • Fall of the Monarchy (August 10, 1792) -- new revolution begins and goes away with France • 1792-1794 attempts to create radical republic • Ends at the Fall of Robespierre (July 27, 1794) -- ends up becoming more of a dictatorship having the government rule, and the terror begins • 1794 - 1799 attempts to consolidate gains of the revolution Ends at the Rise of Bonaparte (November 9, 1799) -- weak and corrupt government, very • paranoid of coups • 1799-1815 Napoleonic era, attempt to dominate Europe • Fall of Napoleon (June 22, 1815) -- French Empire Sections and Views of the Revolution • Conservative: People who thought it was okay to change the regime Liberal Tradition: Attempt to create a liberal monarchy to balance the king with a constitutional • monarchy, to create a house and parliament -- good stage of the revolution • Radical Stage: Gave people the right to education, to work, for public assistance, all in the constitution -- was an era that aimed at radical equality France has the tendency to turn to one strong leader -- Napoleon, Charles de Gaulle • Loyseau “Treatise on Orders” -- used to justify France's social organization and describe the society until 1789 • Estates: Clergy --> Prayed Nobility --> Fought -- Nobles of the sword (go back to the ancient knights), Nobles of the robe Third Estate --> Paid • Estates for all of France was the Estates General -- the three houses (all orders had a formal existence) • Social hierarchy is what sets out the revolution French Revolution September 5, 2013 France has 27 million people during the time of the revolution, Germany was roughly 24.5 • million as a non-unified country, GB has 11 million, Spain 11.5 million • France was very populated and prosperous (relative to the time) -- what allows France to go to a number of wars • Belief that the order was naturalized and the way that God created things • The Great Chain of Being • God, Angels, Humans, Animals, Plants, Earth and Stones • France was declared an entirely Catholic country, and it was illegal to be protestant after 1685 -- many fled and were welcomed by other countries • About 600,000 protestant at the end of the revolution -- could not worship legally • 30,000 Jews in France during the time of the revolution -- they had to fight for citizenship -- treated as foreign minorities during the revolution The Estates General • The First Estate: The Clergy • Do not pay taxes, serve the state through prayer • Teach schools, run the hospitals, church is paying it’s own way in a sense • The church is extremely rich and own most of the land Nepotism -- can pass their offices off to their nephews, rather than marrying • • Split view in the Catholic church • No one ever questions the clergy, because they are ranked the highest connected to God • Prove why they deserve their privilege with helping the hospitals • The Second Estate: The Nobility • Made up 1% or 1.5% of the population • Princes, country gentlemen; Robe and swords: two kinds of nobility • Venal -- selling of office • Nobility own their offices and it’s like owning property • Nobility have privileges and property -- most important privilege questioned is wether being taxed or not Buy their way into nobility • • Parliament: Protectors of the king • Don’t pay tax because they’ve paid their serves to the country • Nobles of the sword, generations of blood in this position • The Third Estate • Bourgeois: city dwellers -- a man who paid a tax to his city, who was an official citizen in the city, a legal status and not just middle class Had a voice that the rest of the Third estate did not • • Contribute to society -- were the 2.5 Estate, above the rest of the third estate -- despited the nobility but at the same time wanted to be them • Two views of the Third Estate • Merchants, artisans and crafts men, day laborers • Deserving core, and the undeserving core • The French Peasantry -- rural life in France -- most of the land in France is divided up into noble lands (seignearie) • Pay certain dues of property is owned by noble men, depending on the peasant (pay in chicken or eggs etc.) • Peasants had to work a number of day for the Lord such as on the field or on the roads Feudal dues owed by the peasants to the Lords -- the Lord was Lord and noble, while the • peasants were just peasants French Revolution and Napoleon September 10, 2013 Government under the Last Three Louis • How monarchy becomes undermine? • When they start to question the king, they begin to undermine the divine right monarchy. Sexual scandal and upsetting the public does not help the public imagine • • King is not being paternal and providing when people are starving • People began to question the hierarchy more than the church • What is the greatest weakness in terms of how the government functions? • Grasp control or popular support -- need one or the other • Idea that God chose the King • Bossuet defines Old Regime Monarchy -- his job was to bring up the son of the son King to be a good kind. Four principles of monarchy: Sacred -- King is chosen by God, believed God reigned through the king, “Louis by the grace of • God, king of France...” -- sacredness was embedded into the monarchy • The Coronation of Louis XVI (11 June 1775) • Louis lost status, changed to “the king touches you, may God heal you” -- low point of public opinion for the monarchy • Paternal -- King did traditionally go out and distribute charity -- he was the father of his people, to rule as a father always with the people’s best interest in mind Father/son conflict -- the king still thought he knew best, and he was not to be questioned • • Absolute -- He embodied the state, it was a part of him • Absolute meant he was above laws made by men, the highest law giver in the state, he can give them and make them, stands above them • Believed the people did have rights, cannot simply take away someone's life • “Fundamental laws” of the kingdom, at the time of the revolution no one was sure exactly what they were, concept was a lose one • Fundamental laws agreed upon was that the King could not chose his own successor it must move down the line to the eldest son & King must be Catholic • Subordinated to Reason -- King is expected to use reason and intelligence rather than acting through passion as priest Remonstrances -- An expression of protest, complaint, or reproof, especially a formal • statement of grievances • Lettres de jussion: Letters to Justice • It’s always easier not to blame the king himself • As the revolution is about to begin, parlement reserves itself Louis XIV Wanted to rule himself without chief ministers -- felt that his father and ministers had too much • power • Stretched the borders of France, the costs were greater than the land that he got • As older he got, got obsessed with wars, raising taxes, alienated the nobility • Advisors decided that there weren’t any protestants left in France, drove them away -- many people think was a very bad mistake because France lost several thousand working middle class people • Alienated the Catholic church -- went left and center • By the time he died, he was little regretted • His sons had died and grandsons had died, his great grandson was two or three and took the throne because he was the last of the royal throne to survive -- his brothers were swiped out of measles and small pox Louis XV • Came to the throne as a child and run by his great uncle • Did not have the education or the training • He gets involved in sexual scandals with mistresses -- people chose to make a fuss about it and undermine his sexual life and ultimately the monarchy • Is not willing to try and sit down and do the kind of reform that the country needs to undertake • When he finally agrees to some serious reforms Died in Versailles • Louis XVI • He was a grandson of Louis XV • Better king that probably his detractors gave him credit for -- tried too hard to be liked to undo the hatred his grandfather created -- Reversed reforms by his grandfather • Louis XVI was very easily influenced • Married to Marie Antoinette -- Austrian, diplomatic agreement to make the wedding -- she was pretty and flighty and not a good match for Louis XVI • The court at Versailles and Marie Antoinette become symbols Agents of Monarchy in the Old Regime • Upper Council • Council of Dispatches • 4 Secretaries of State: Foreign Affairs, Navy, War, King’s Household • Council of Finances • Controller general Provincial Estates • Deal with petty things • The Estates of Burgundy in the 18th century • A government within a government • All of the old provinces are done away with High Courts of Justice • Courts become a local government, in competition with other local government • Parliament will local issues to the city government of paris Chancellor Rene Maupeou: attempted to reform the courts by doing away with parlement French Revolution & Napoleon September 12, 2013 The Enlightenment: The Role of Ideas • How did the Enlightenment thought, and in particular the critique of religion, tend to undermine accepted ideas and practices fundamental to the Old Regime? The enlightenment and the origins of the revolution • • Enlightenment political thought • Montesquieu and Separation of Power • Voltaire and Enlightenment absolutism • Rousseau and The Social Contract • During the revolution, Voltaire’s remains were received at the Pantheon • Transfer of Rousseau’s remains to the Pantheon • On both cases the speeches emphasized the revolution • Edmund Burke -- British conservative -- already blamed the revolution on the Enlightenment, saying they did not take tradition and shouldn’t rationally overturn it “Voltaire vied with Rousseau for the frightful honor of having caused the French Revolution” • Joseph de Maistre • Kant, German philosopher comes at the end of the enlightenment defines the period at the age of criticism The French Enlightenment • The First Generation • Montesquieu -- from a noble family, after making enough money publishing his own works he quit being a judge -- The Persian Letters, revises travel literature contributing to the enlightenment by giving different perspectives -- Persians were fascinated by France particularly religion • Voltaire -- more outspoken and anti-religious, simply dismissing it • The Second Generation • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Denis Diderot -- created the encyclopedia • Jean Le Rond d’Alembert -- edited the encyclopedia • The Third Generation -- only generation that moves into the revolution • Anne-Robert Turgot -- tries desperately to try to reform the French economy • Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat -- gets involved in the politics of the French revolution itself and tried to push it along, paying for it with his life Social World of the Enlightenment • Women have small role here amongst men during the enlightenment • Conversation, Correspondence, Publication • A network of society of letters that existed than linked them • The Great Society at the Salon of Madame Geoffrin • They came together at different times Montesquieu • No timeless truth on what is good and bad, but everything should be studied at time and place -- opens the possibility for change • Three forms of government • For him, an ideal government is one that is balanced and looks at England as a government that does that Voltaire • Fled to England • Believe that different political systems are suited to different people -- Smaller nations can be republic, but larger nations need a monarchy • Defends monarchy for France • Had very little trust in human nature and filled with negativity, because he thought humans naturally abused neighbors and take power when they can French Revolution & Napoleon September 17 The Reform Crisis and Aristocratic Revolt I. Tax Structures and State Finance II. The Failure of Reform III. The Aristocratic Revolt • Give up everything themselves and get their rights • State of nature, people come together to accept to live together • Rousseau is positive -- people will give up everything and get back civil society, living together under the law • Social Contract -- a pact to make the laws The people are going to make the laws, where the essence of sovereignty comes from -- limits • of the sovereign is that everyone needs to live under the laws • Government is an agency created by the people -- an intermediate body -- people create government to serve their needs • Rousseau can be accused of being totalitarian, but really you can see that he is saying everyone will be free and equal • Government can take from all of us only equally and only what we need • Different governments are good for different times and places Taxes on Individual Wealth • Two sides of the picture add up to financial chaos • Taille (introduced 1348; clergy, nobles, and many cities are exempt) -- created during 100 years war, needed permission of people to taxes while the war was going on, becomes habitual and continues it • Capitation (introduced tentatively 1696; again 1701; levied unequally across estate) -- head tax, tax levied on everyone -- within a few years the clergy bought out the tax; nobles end up paying about 1/10th of the rate of the common people • Vingtieme (introduced 1749; collected unequally) -- 1/20th (5% tax) • Government collected a combination of these taxes • Indirect Taxes: sales taxes (aides), salt taxes (gabelle), labor on public works (corvee) -- different taxes for different cities and different needs • Make money with the money there collecting for the king...? -- some men were loaning money to the king with interest • Tax Farmers --> King --> --> --> • Tax Farmers always kept a large sum of money for themselves • Louis Mandrin: famous smuggler • Tax Farmers were so wealthy they created pavilions at the city gates and people paid taxes on what they were bringing into the city • Finance Minister Joseph-MArie Terray • Maupeou’s reforms trying to collect money from the offices -- when Maupeou fell, Terray went with him • This is when people see the magistrates opposing the tax system because it was so corrupt -- protesting the tax system • Physiocrat: school of enlightenment and economic thinkers who believe and wanted to reduce everything that taxes should be on land, on real property -- would have done away with all sales tax and tolls -- believed in free trade and only have taxes on land • the idea was too radical of a change, but that the idea was that people make profits off the products and just taxing the land Finance Minister Anne-Robert Turgot • • Finance Minister Jacques Necker -- he did the job and the work of the controller general and was in charge of French finances -- what he tried to do is reform the tax collection rather than the taxes • Created a centralized treasury • Undertook enlighten reforms of government administration -- looked at the whole government structure However, did not solve the problem • • Published the king’s account believing everything would be better with transparency and show things weren’t too bad -- published the ordinary expenses but not the extraordinary expenses (such as war) • Extraordinary expenses were the ones costing a lot of money • By 1781 common people thought Necker was a hero thinking everything in the budget was fine and thought there was no need for more taxes, but in actuality by publishing the books he was thrown out of office • Pretty much the end of the reform era • Finance Minister Charles-Alexandre Calonne (1783-1787) • He tries to restore competence by then France is living in borrowed money Spent more, borrowed more and drove France into more debt • • France was on the verge of bankruptcy • “revitalize the entire state” French Revolution & Napoleon September 19, 2013 The Calling on the Estate • What role did Parliament play in resolving the tax crisis 1788, and how did this help of aggravate the situation? • Why did the Third Estate unhappiness with the unfair tax system turn into broader set of grievances against aristocratic privilege? • Accepts deals for major sets of reform -- principle weakness in the state is a lack of fixed rules and common goals; lacking consistency Calonne’s Tax Proposals in 1786 • Replace the two taxes added to the tie (vingtieme and capitation) with a new tax! Subvention levied in kind at moment of harvest by new local assemblies • Donate a percentage of your harvest -- so if it’s a bad crop year you still have crops for yourself Local assemblies were created -- giving the local people some sort of voice when it came to • their taxes • Supplement subvention with new stamp taxes • Abolish internal customs barrier -- ship things by river; freesup trade which would benefit everyone --- goods move more freely, and more people can BUY • Replace corvee with new public works tax • Relax controls on grain trade Reduce the gabelle • • Take out new loans and consolidate debt • Part of whats behind is to convince everyone including France’s creditors that everything is okay Assembly of Notables • Refused to give up their privileges • People are just trying to go forward, but this is not okay with them • Aristocratic revolt • They thought Calonne’s reforms were wallpapering over the problem -- they wanted real estates with real roles Assembly of Nobles are dismissed • • THe reforms are getting more and more necessary -- crisis is deepening -- problem gets worse The Revolt of Parliament • Parliament is giving the task, still resisting the idea of calling the estate • Parliament wants a larger reform package -- education, army • Promises the reform of the legal system Parliament is looking out for the interest of the people • • August 6 -- register Calonne’s reforms • August 7 -- Parliament of Paris renounces registration • September 19 -- Compromise reached: king agrees to call Estates • November 19 -- Royal session to register taxes • May 3 -- Parliament issues Funamental Laws • May 8 -- Lamoignon remodels Parlements Parlement Publishes the Fundamental Laws • France is a monarchy governed by laws; of these several are fundamental, these include: • Succession in the male line by primogeniture Right to grant taxation through regular meetings of the Estates General • • Respect for traditional customs of the providences • Irremovability of magistrates (not fundamental law) • Right of courts to verify laws and register those in accord with fundamental laws • Habeus Corpus and right of trial by jury • Purpose to the changes are to slap parlement in the face!! • Idea is that now laws will only be a high court consisted of the high court of the king • Lettres de Cachet, Taille • Begin to see popular violence in France -- The day of the tiles in Grenoble • August 24, 1788, Necker is recalled • Kingdom is in even worse economic crisis -- nothing is getting solved or resolved, nature is not cooperating (floods, rainstorms) • Necker reimposes price control • Unemployment leads to homeless and vagabonds • Vagabonds begin to invade the barns and properties • An unsettled time because of the economic times • Royal officials are attacked All going on while people are trying to think about how to organize the Estates Generals • • Estates General decide to meet -- Third Estate is not equally represented The Second Assembly of Notables Opposes Doubling the Third French Revolution & Napoleon September 24, 2013 The Meeting of the Estates General • Third Estate wanted more representation peaks after calling the assembly of notables -- refuses to double the representation • The Third Estate feel a right to and are hardening their opinion • Society of Thirty -- they want CHANGE • Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, becomes a liberal -- head chopped off in the revolution -- a leader and bankrolls the liberals • The Society of the Thirty Campaigns for Political Change Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, author of What is the Third Estate? The pressure for double the third and the vote by head continues • • Sieye’s opinion on the nobility -- they are idle and they don’t think the class thats working the least has the most -- real anger against this class -- they are a burden on the nation • Similar language as Rousseau • First unwritten constitution of France -- starts off as just paper and propaganda that pushes along the revolution A lot of people representing the first estate were commoners, many were Parish priest • • The Cahier de dolenance of Riaille (petition of grievance) • Principle Demands: 1. Abolition of the corvee 2. Abolition of certain sales taxes 3. Abolition of seigneurial rights 4. Abolition of seigneurial justice 5. Equal tax for all 6. Restoration of the dime to its original purpose of supporting parish clergy and the poor • Complain of the nobility: mill and oven -- the Lords abused their monopoly on their ovens and mills to bake bread You had to pay taxes on a noble regime if you are not a noble • • Nobility should be a service rendered from the state • All agree on the need for regular assemblies, and represent the people -- a lot of pressure at the time to end the divine monarchy • Most call of regular meeting of the estates general -- equality of taxes • No one is attacking Louis the XVI in person or the monarchy directly, that only comes must later after the king has violated the trust of the people • Opening Session of the Estates General at Versailles No one knew at the time how important this would be -- no one was predicting a revolution • • When they met it was not a revolutionary move, it was dreary and depressing • It opened with the king and a 3hour financial report by Necker (BORING AF) • The tone of the entire speech was negative -- nothing of reformed is mentioned • Necker didn’t want to ruin anything and to keep everything calm and moves in a slow pace • Verification of credentials -- except that the third estates says NO -- it will not separate for the verification, they're scared once they break up everything will be separate • Excitement is growing about what is not happening, intense interest is going on • New pamphlets calling for change is created every HOUR but not much reply from the government • Newspaper start publishing on a regular basis -- all stirs up sentiment and pushes things along June 10, 1789 • Abbe Sieyes proposes that the Third Estates invite the others to join them to verify credentials together -- voted by the Third Estate • Wanted to proceed to verification • All them in to join us, if not -- we don't need them! • Third Estate really takes control of their own affairs Only 19 clergy men have joined in • • 17th of June, Third Estate and those who joined declare themselves a National Assembly French Revolution and Napoleon September 26, 2013 • Last possible date of the start of the revolution was July 14! • National Assembly refuses to consider itself the Third Estate • Good reason to believe that he was working behind the scene, and persuaded by his two younger brothers to do something about this The Troops and Soldiers • Confusion is so great that the court only have troops to rely on -- King is depending on soldiers to enforce his will, but who are the soldiers? they're commoners • Most of the troops remain loyal to the king, but there are incidents when they decide not to • Troops in PAris that gather together with the people and go to the prisons and free the people • Clash of interest from the troops and co
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