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HI266 Class Notes Part 2.pdf

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Boston University
CAS HI 266

HI266 Class Notes Part 2 — November & December French Revolution and Napoleon November 5, 2013 The Thermidorian Reaction and Creation of the Directory • Saint-Just’s Report to the Convention (26 February 1794) • Execution of the Hebertists • Camille Desmoulins • Arrest takes place -- TO THE GUILLOTINE • Suggest that terror should be ended -- crimes are not registered to the truth • Festival of the Surpreme Being -- 20 Prairial, Year II -- 8 June 1794 • The Mountain aka the Jacobins • Pushing for more legislation and more terror -- the question will they do anything to help Robespierre when he is turned again? Robespierre -- Law of the 22 Prairial, Year II -- “The enemies of the people are those who seek to • destroy public, either by force or by cunning... Those who have sought to inspire discouragement” • VAGUE VAGUE VAGUE CHARGES, NO ONE IS SAFE • It is now MANDATORY to not turn people in • “The Penalty for all offense under the jurisdiction of the Revolutionary Tribunal is DEATH” • Very little chance to defend themselves Period initiated -- The GREAT terror -- new victims to the guillotine • • Brother asks to be arrested with him • Robespierre shoots himself in the jaw • Serves one year before his arrest - straight to the guillotine • Marks a radical change in the course of the revolution -- from crazy radical to conversativeness again, how to you bring the terror to an end? • How to fill the bellys of the Parisians and keeping them calm • Fear vs. Terror • Fear is good -- fear of breaking the laws, and of breaking it -- shouldn’t have to fear individuals Terror is mostly used by the minority to oppress the majority • • Scapegoating -- blame Robespierre for everything • Joyous crowded watching Robespierre’s execution • Gilded Youth or “Muscadins” -- Sectional politics, claim a public role for themselves • They “liberate” the public places Louis XVIII issues the Declaration of Verona • • Return to the Old Regime! • People don’t terror anymore but at the same time they don’t want to go back to the Old Regime either... Louis XVIII is clearly missing the memo here • Ball and fancy parties where they invite people who lost family members • High prices -- collapse of the Assignat -- prices soared, speculation • Assignat drops half of its face value • “Bread and the Constitution of 1793” -- Riots of 12 Germinal, Year III • Riots of the 1-4 Prairial. Year III -- The head of Representative Feraud, who opposed the crowd’s entry, is presented on a pike to the President of the Convention The end of the radical participation in the revolution • French Revolution and Napoleon November 12, 2013 Bonaparte Comes to Power I. The Wars to Campo Formio • The Netherlands — Batavian Republic proclaimed January 1795 peace May 1795 • Created a new sister Republic in the Netherlands Austrian Netherlands reoccupied —Summer 1794 annexed October 1795 • • The End of the First Coalition • French saw Austria as their main enemy, the French always had a hard time taking down the BRITISH • France didn’t have the navy size to fight the British • France will launch attack against Austria — three armies converge and fight Austria —Through Germany and Italy • Bonaparte led the army through Italy • Bonaparte gained recognition through the Directory but not given much of an army • Battle of Lodi —> Bonaparte’s army enters Milan (14 May 1796) • Napoleon’s ego gets hugeeeee Had to continue to fight after Milan • • You have to admire what he was at that time — the RAW energy and drive • Decides to take his army and fight Austria regardless what the Directory says • He marches straight into Austria and makes TREATY… damn • He is in control of the situation — preliminary peace treaty is made with the Austrian — achieved in October 1797 • Bonaparte gives Vienna to Austrian II. The Failure of Parliamentary Democracy • Caught between Royalism and Jacobinism • Royalist take the lead — worrisome to the Directory • Napoleon knows he has the upper hand with the Directory at this point • Directors were already worried about the growing signs of Royalism • The Coup d’Etat of 18 Fructidor, Year V • Arrested the Royalist deputies • General Coup against the right — tried to give legality • The “Second Directory” — to emphasize the difference where before they had power and role and to having a dictatorial state • New authority to reverse the loyalist measures • Directors who plot and make another Coup — The Directors manipulate elections to eliminate a Jacobin threat • The Directory falls between two stools • Emmanuel-Joseph • Pririal Coup, Year VII The disgruntled councils take their revenge against the Directors y forcing resignations and • purging executive • Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes Plots a revision of the constitution of the Year III III. The Ride of Napoleon Bonaparte • ONLY 30!! • Second son of a Corsican nobleman • Career actually moved slowly until war breaks out • Allies himself with the Jacobins • City falls and three days after bombardment • Transfered to Paris Egyptian Campaign — 35,000 troops manages to convince the Directory not only to make war • but to learn something • Battle of the Pyramids • Only country still in war with France is BRITAIN • IV. The Coup of 18-19 Brumaire French Revolution & Napoleon November 14, 2013 Bonaparte Consolidates Power • The Rosetta Stone!! • The French brought back all the treasures and goodies in Egypt • Trying to build a better army • Going into a very different country with different cultures and religions • Bonaparte is given permission to go home from Egypt while his troops stayed there — they failed lol • Amend the constitution • The Coup of 18-19 Brumair, Year VIII — November 9-10, 1799 • Clear violation of the constitution, for bringing the army into the legislature — army to protect them where they were debating in the council chamber • Bonaparte was taken out to the room — brought back in some of his guard, became a military coup • The Provisional consuls — Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes and Roger Ducos • “Authority from above, confidence from below” • Directors violated the constitution — create a constitution that would legitimately give them more authority • Trying to get the people to back up the government • Checks and balances would keep things in shape • Powers given to the Senate Notables choosing through a series of levels, a senate that was to choose members of a two • house legislature (Tribunate, Legislature) • Legislature — 300 man who only voted — not supposed to talk • Was put into operation so quickly never made it • The three consuls taking oaths installing the Constitution of the Year VIII • Bonaparte decides that it is the executive • Council of State — chosen all by Bonaparte — most important tool he uses for governing France — he sees their potential and draws them up to office • Bonaparte did not find his power as strong as his liking • The Consolidation of Power: Weakens legislative bodies, gives senate more power, centralizes local administration under prefects, increases internal security under Joseph Fouche, Alters justice system to eliminate election of judges, reintroduces price controls on bread, creates a state bank and introduces new currency • Reintroduces price control on bread — keeping the common people quiet • Solves the financial problem — creates a state bank (hadn’t been one for almost 100 years), he introduces a new currency the FRANC $$ • Give France financial stability — authorizes a type of bankruptcy Makes peace with the church — 1801 signs a Concordat with the Pope (July 15 1801) • • Why does he agree to the concordat? The pope is a wise enough Catholic to know that to get the Catholic religion nation-wide church is worth the humiliation — thinking of the larger! • Signs the Concordat — looses and excepts that all of the Bishops have to resign and Bonaparte gets to choose them • Bonaparte Crossing the Saint Bernard’s Pass French Revolution and Napoleon November 19, 2013 Empire at Home • Why did Napoleon think he needed to be emperor, when he already had more power as first consul than most kings? Who were the winners and losers in Napoleon’s empire — that is to say, which parts of society • benefitted or suffered under his rule? • The second coalition puts the Fatherland in danger once again • Odd winter with late snow — could not set off to Italy without the snows melting in the Alps • Massena • Battle of Marengo — most famous battle for military strategist — Bonaparte rewrote the story for excitement • Bonaparte negotiates peaces with the Austrians — Peace os Luneville (February 1801) • Occupied Tuscany • Italy was once again made a sister republic France and its Allies in 1803 — French satellites: The Batavian Republic, Helvetians Republic, • Ligurian Republic, The Italian Republic • Peace of Amiens — March 1802 • Britain didn’t want to own the Mediterranean itself but didn’t want it to be France’s • Proclamation of the Empire — 18 May 1804 • More recognition • The “Infernal Machine” — a bomb attempt against Bonaparte’s life — he came late and he lived!! wahooo — Blew up before his arrival • Conspiracies on conspiracies to kill Bonaparte • Execution of Louis Antoine — duke of Enghien — 20 March 1804 — A bourbon prince falsely accused of plotting assassinate Bonaparte • Empire is made out of the republic but they never abandon the terms of the Republic • Achieve what we need to achieve but now we need stability — praises Bonaparte but also talks about ensuring the gains of the revolution — what had been established • Now we have a unique opportunity to try out the Republic in calmer circumstances • The Senate proclaims Napoleon the EMPEROR OF FRANCE 18 May 1804 • Emperor came out of anything a republic, a self-made man — but a king was heredity • New turn of the revolution rather than admitting that something went wrong and going back to fix it • Coronation Robes — LOL • Coronation of Napoleon — crowned in the Norte Dame Cathedral • Napoleon crowned himself • Napoleon is cr
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