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Department
History
Course
CAS HI 282
Professor
Marilyn Halter
Semester
Spring

Description
HI282 Midterm Study Guide Class 1: The Roots ofAmerican Consumer Society Glickman Chapter 6: The First Consumer Revolution Consumer Revolution • 1690-1740: England and Scotland and mainland colonies o Middling classes began to purchase manufactured goods  Leisure, social ritual, status affirmation  Patterned after Paris and London  Promoted by window displays, newspaper ads, world of mouth  Not by who was more efficient, but by customer demand • Molded by mass marketing and conscious creation of imaginary necessities Back in America • Fear of economic enslavement by credit o Fears of political tyranny from stamp act Indians of the Eastern Woodlands • Comptoirs (trading posts) o Indians had animal pelts and skins o Pelts were most lucrative o Beaver was a great sell o High European demand o Traders did well in the European market o 1626 was the start of mass trade  Tricked byAmericans, who traded back with them “imaginary” wants instead of real needs  But Indians felt like they got the better end of the deal  Didn’t understand price fluctuations, still selective about what they would trade for • In nativeAmerica, customer is always right • Life of hunters o Left with everything needed for winter hunt o Returned, paid their debt o Anything left over, they were given supplies and luxuries o If it didn’t go well...  Moved to new hunting grounds and stroked up business with new trader  Not good about paying back What did the Indians Want? • Learn from archeologists and hand of tranders’clerks and government officials and the lists they made o Tools  Better materials  More durable  Held edge longer  Iron axes/hatchets/butcher knives, ice chisels, fish hooks, wide hoes, copper kettles o Clothing  Wool blanketing  Why buy when they have so many furs? • Lighter, dried faster, softer, warm when wet, bright colors, easily fashioned into other clothing items  No market for tight clothing o Decorations  Increase status and beauty  Jewelry o Novelties  Guns, alcohol, mirrors were center stage • Guns and alcohol destructive  Indians dying  Men carried mirrors  First look at personal fashion • Also used to kill themselves, slitting throats In mirrors • Food (on occasion) • Sometimes biscuit or bread, sugar flour and tea rarely Fate of the Indian Population • Converted to Christianity • Settled in praying towns • Lived in English frame houses complete with standard colonial furniture • Plowed fields with horses • Kept cattle • Dressed in English garb • Chief turned to “king George” o Had to sell his land to white men o Pocketed most of proceeds o Didn’t share personal property • Some Indians didn’t change o Kept hunting o When that wasn’t selling anymore, nothing left to sell but land o Prices low, and Indians had little leverage Revitalization Movements War over tribal debts If Indians wished to make it to their own heaven, they must revive old ceremonies and make several sacrifices Must live without trade or connections with white people, clothing and supporting themselves as their forefathers did 1763 rebellion against British Glickman Chapter 7: Consumption Ideology and Community on Eve of theAmerican Rev. Commercialism- 1763 • Big part of revolution • Unintended consequence of commercialism • British put rules on sugar and other tax acts o Challenge forAmericans o Oppression of consumption o Considerations upon the Act of Parliament, 1764  British pamphlet openly stated colonists lived well b/c of consumerism on British imports during war o The late regulations by John Dickinson  States that pamphlet was misleading and colonists are actually poor  Colonists people angry about misconception • Thought there was conspiracy to keep them pour Power and Grandeur of Great Britain • Even though the colonists had hard times, still contributed to English prosperity o Loyal consumers 7 years war (French and Indian war) • Crucial moment in development of empire of goods • War justified taxing o British saw prosperity inAmerica, took advantage and started taxing • War brought in upper class British soldiers soAmericans tried to impress o Caused British to believe thatAmericans were wealthier than they really are o Was this on purpose or was it a true misconception? Consumerism Post Revolution • Because property was so equally divided, the colonists needed something to differentiate themselves • Americans are too dependent on Britain and want to reform o reform buying habits o put aside imported goods • History of the American Revolution o Why did parliament taxAmericans?  Found answer is Britain’s willingness to accept so much of theAmerican’s money  British soldiers serving inAmerica – but thinks that this is a natural error Theories on How American Revolution Started • The colonists were all Republican and not trying to change to the economic system o Did not like commercial mentality o Backwards looking o Fear of trade and banking o Fear of political corruption o They plotted to “crush liberty” in Great Britain • Others say that their ideologies were more liberal • The events that occurred grew from a popular ideology Commercialism before revolution • Colonists believed British trade was the most important part of economy • Loyal when they first came over o British empire owed itself entirely to international commerce/trade • Commercial societies freer and happier o Commerce = liberty • Trade = reciprocity • Pre 1740’s o FewAmericans thought of relationship w/ Britain to be consumer • Post 1740 o Bigger connection commercially o More invasive in American culture o 7 years war introduced luxury o Takeaways: English exports toAmerica increased over 50% just before revolution Eventually, American’s get Upset: Era of Boycotts • Worried about participation in marketplace • First consumer based boycott • Response to taxation • First one happened in 1765-66 for stamp act o Became more planned as time went on o Signature of American political protests o Still, nobody really talked aboutAmerica producing itself British economy depends onAmerica • Americans their best customers • Would effect British merchants • Workers would be out of work Non-importation movement • 1770 • Making all boycotts official • Legitimizing • Subscriptions, sign to join the movement o Problem: made it too exclusive o Worried that minority is trying to speak to the majority o Not representative of everybody o Too important to be left in the hands of so few  should vote New York Boycott Movement (1770) • After parliament repealed all Townsend acts • All merchants in NYC wanted to renew tradeASAP o Philly and Boston had huge advantage being at seaports • Boycotts was to allow import of anything except British tea so NYC was not at disadvantage Class 2:Advertising theAmerican Dream Marchand Chapter 1:Apostles of Modernity (Advertising theAmerican Dream) 1920’s Advertising Man Modern man Scientific & technological advances Modernity’s ‘town criers’ Good news about progress Ad Man’s Role Push modernization Facilitators of flow of communication to consumers Position between big businesses and the public Further process of efficiency, specialization, and rationalization Economy During Start ofAd Man Economies of scale Rationalization of work place Functional specialization Rapid and integrated flow of materials Companies establishing face to face consumer relationship Automobiles Radio Chemicals Movies Drugs Electrical refrigeration Cycle of production and the ad man Ad man facilitates communication to consumers Consumers have lots of choices Consumers choose most efficient producers Most efficient producers have more sales  economies of scale Producers can lower prices  everyone has higher standard of living! Maturing of Industrialization Consumer is most unpredictable and most disruptive element of economy Traits ofAdvertiser and of the Modern Man City man, youthfulness, mobility, optimism, tolerance for diversity Always changing, fast tempo! Other changes around the Time of Industrialization “Photographs by radio, machines that think. Lights that pierce fog” Everything quick! Skscrapers Electrification and assembly line Biggest Problem of this Era CONSUMERSARE CRAZY. Cant be tamed.And cant predict actions. 1920’s saw more speed of change than ever Anxieties about social disorder Symbolized by prohibition, immigration restrictions, “new woman” and “flaming youth” Jazz, bobbed hair, cosmetics, hip flask, sexual frankness, Masses easily swayed by the latest fad 1920’s changes in Advertising and Consumerism Products now pose solutions to anxieties and delemas of consumer Went from railroads and breakfast foods.... To much wider range of products and causes Some (likeAmerican telephone and telegraph) used campaign to persuade public Meatpacking used ads to defend against government Ads to influence public attitudesAND to sell products Still...merchandising remained primary function of advertising Promotion of new electrical products, and old products Brand loyalty became a thing Every product could be advertised! Even government got involved selling war bonds/ enlisting army/navy 1922 dubbed “the dawn of the distribution age” Ad costs and expenditures went WAY up Rise in radio advertising Saturday Evening post began to have index of advertisers Magazine advertising increased 600% 1927, ford, the biggest non advertising believer, announced a massive ad campaign TheAdvertising Job Not looked highly upon  suspicion Wanted to be a science Concerned about their image Committee on public information changed stature during WWI War service won new prestige Advertising educates and serves unselfish social purposes (lol) Lured prestigious illustrators and photographers for ad pages Climax of ad rise was when President Coolidge’s address was given American association of advertising agencies Defended contribution to society Advertising is the life of trade Had the responsibility of inspiring and ennobling the commercial world  redemption of mankind What madeAdvertising “Modern” Efficient mass communications that rationalized impersonal marketplace of vast scale Facilitated exchange of goods and services b.w strangers Stimulated conviction “what was new was desirable” Transcended or denied essential economic nature as mass communication and achieved subjective qualities and a personal tone Both modern and buffer against impersonality of modernness Went from brand name/jingles..... To print with arguments/reasons Reason Why UseApproach Arguments and reasons Long Get people to read by putting in appeal to emotions Selling the Benefit Done by a few Illumination instead of lighting fixtures Sex appeal instead of just soap Contrasting Advertisements from the Past Old featured product itself, but little attention to byproducts of owning Quality of announcements More objective info about product than subjective about anxieties Newer focused more on hopes and anxieties Mental process of the consumer Objective, to subjective Example: soap advertisement, all the social things you could do if you smelled good! Have to have this soap to be social Lysol disinfectant: disinfect a world of harsh external judgments! Big Businesses Distrust from WWI Tempo of consumerism made it worse People feared not being able to keep up with new complexities Lost in the crowd Perused search for identity and self-realization Advertiser Side by Side with Consumer Told consumer what advice they needed to face external challenge Salesman  confidantes Advice/ coaching  same side as consumers Societies pressures and complexities made consumer uneasy Advertiser has helpful advice Recognized by name (betty Crocker) Personal endorsers Testimonials Realism more popular than ‘the businessman/housewife’ Scare copy Negative appeal Showed dramatic episodes of social failures Provided answers to these social failures Photographs Replaced drawings Listerine Made just as important as the daily shower Used fear tactics Multiple uses for Listerine Proclaimed uses as cure for dandruff, aftershave and deodorant Listerine toothpaste Created new diseases as a new anxiety that Listerine could solve Kotex Superior new products Accepted challenge of the silenced topic of sanitary items First ads = string of circumlocutions Young women skating, kotex completes toilet essentials Active schoolgirls, guards against emergencies Company personality was the woman that lives every hour of every day Conclusion Empathetic depictions of consumer experiences, and answers to hopes and anxieties can be used in any product or service advertising “Dramatic realism” Intensifying every day problems and triumphs, spotlighting them as crucial life decisions or fantasizing them Used to sell leisure, enjoyment, beauty, prestige and popularity with mundane product Class 3: The Brand Expands Strasser: The Name on the Label • Nobody ever thinks to buying liquors or wines except in bottles showing where they come from, and who is responsible for their condition and character 1900 • MostAmericans still bought sugar and vinegar from barrels and vats at small groceries and general stores that sold goods in unlabeled packets 1850s • Successful companies began to stamp and paint their companies’names onto their products and established direct relationships with the people who used them New Technology • Allowed for packaged products • Manufacturing companies that chose to invest in the new machinery and purchase the new packaging materials found themselves literally making a new kind of product Labeled Packages • Showed where they come from, who is responsible for their condition and character • Could be differentiated from their competition in advertisements that displayed their pictures • Alabel or carton was not an advertising medium but an integral part of the commodity itself • Companies urged salesmen to introduce new size and packaging materials with almost as much fanfare as a wholly new product Problems with Packages • Cans and boxes concealed colors and odors and prevented shoppers from tasting food before they bought it • Grocers were recommended to increase packaged-food trade by holding store demonstrations o Companies usually abandon product education and concentrate on pushing their own brands once the category is established and competitors have challenged the leader’s share in the market Goodwill • 1769 o Court claimed could not be sold because a potential purchaser had no power to keep it • 1841 o Defined as a business establishment’s advantage or benefit... beyond the mere value of the capital stock, funds, or property employed therein, in consequence of the general public patronage and encouragement which it receives from constraint or habitual customers, or account of its local position, or common celebrity, or reputation • 1890 o court ruled that property encompassed not only physical things but expected earning power, sale value, and the liberty of access to markets.  Made goodwill into legal property  Facilitated the development of the corporate form Trademarks • Constitution specifically referred to patents and copyrights, it made not provision for trademarks. • Manufacturers o Began to mark their goods in 1870 and promote their own marks o Organized societies to foster trademarking in general • Supreme Court held the 1870 and 1876 trademark statutes unconstitutional o Opponents argued that trademarks were unnecessary to commerce  Few goods bore trademarks except for spirits, tobacco, and patent medicines • 1905 o New act established trademark registration as prima facie evidence of ownership o Those who registered their marks would be favored in court  Allowed for registration of all marks that had been in use for ten years or more  Provided for destruction of infringing labels and packages as well as for the recovery of damages  10,000 new marks were registered within a year of the act o Trademarks did not expire o Mark had to be new, exclusive, and attached to the product in some way • Built corporate images outside of direct selling transactions • Companies wanted to protect their marks because trademarks and the goodwill they represented had become valuable business assets o Successful trademarks were widely imitated  Manufacturers spent considerable time and money pursuing the imitators • i.e. Uneeda Biscuit filed suit against Iwanna Biscuit • Trademarks also made their makers accountable for their goods 1920s • People asked for brands at stores • 90% of Chicago grocers said more than 75% of their customer requested baked beans by name o Campbells soup was best seller in 145 out or 147 stores Successful brands were central to marketing schemes that built powerful companies. • 1920-21 o Nearly all brand mentioned by a majority of 1000 subjects studied by NYU researchers are still familiar  Kodak, Singer, Campbells, Postum, Old Dutch, Wrigleys, Colgate, Welch’s etc Cox: Branding Dixie – The Selling of theAmerican South B.F. Johnson Publishing Company attempts to recruit salesmen for southern history publication • Promoted book that told confederate past • Used tactics of modernity (marketing/advertising) • True tale of effort to establish separate southern confederacy • Guided by profit, not by sentiment Dixie brand • All desired to market (north and south) • Mythology and traditions of southern past Southern ads • More martial iconography • Images of confederate generals or flags Northern ads • Also found southern images useful • Not southern militarism, instead on ease of southern life • Tranquil plantation scenes • Idyllic counterpoint to modernity (more leisure, happy-go-lucky) Brand values • Values of white society • Regional identity made by south Understanding south evolution after civil war/ relationship w/ north • Emerging from the war • Embracing ideology of lost cause o Honor defeated o Celebrated confederate veterans as heroes o Perpetuated mythology of old south • Relationship w/ north o Southerners resented reconstruction o Deplored rights of citizenship granted to blacks o Military occupation considered insult o 1877, confederates renewed claim to governing south o reconciliation began! • Northerners also wanted reconciliation o National brotherhood of anglo-saxon supremacy o Bad for amendments guaranteeing civil liberties for slaves o War became more about blacks and slavery than about south and north Changing of production and consumption of consumer goods • Shift from economy based on agriculture •  Industrial production/mass consumption o Urbanization contributed o National railway contributed o Machines created  economies of scale o Mass production, mass marketing  South did not experience as much as north • Still, participated through mail-order Modern Advertising • Most of 19 century disregarded ads in newspapers/magazines o Religious magazines were the exception o Profited because of controversies (fundamentalists v. social gospel movements v. evolution) • End of 19 century o Rise of marketing in magazines o Luxury goods to middle-class o Mass marketing  Had to be unique! So many items!  Communication between mass production, mass consumption  Brands begun Advertising values • Advertising reflects, and reinforces cultural values • Dixie as a symbol and brand o Symbolized ideas about landscape, memory, race, class, rural, agricultural, antimodern o Brand  Product that represented region and regional identity  When name was included, usually made in south • Cultural meaning o Dixie branded item might infer that the item offered escape from stresses of modernity  “let the gold dust twins do your work”  provides customer with more leisure time • Shared cultural values of white supremacist  books and movies and brand Confederate Veteran • Regional monthly published b/w 1893-1932 o Reflected trends in modern advertising  Medicines, insurance, railroads, provate schools, goods o Southern v. northern ads  Link to confederacy in language or icons o Example: antiseptic refrigerant for wounds  From new Orleans  Label had confederate soldiers and flag  Quality of product linked to image of honor, heroic southern soldiers o Other ‘lost cause’items  American tabacco company • Collectible trading cards created  Souvenirs  Games: the game of confederate heroes  Railroad companies  Uniforms for veterans  Casket companies  Most frequent – monuments and books o Southerners convinced that north misrepresented confederate past...  Northern condemned confederate rebellion BUT  South probably just wanted to support regional business/express southern pride Northern companies involved in confederate branding • Fraternity logo companies • Flag companies • Southern associated with quality Print, radio, and television • Demeaned blacks o Servants who cared for white employers o Leisure  Aunt jemima and maxwell house • Black stereotypes • Southern hospitality shown o Colonial south  Southern belle • Social tableau of “slice of life” o Advertisement for crab orchard whiskey o Old hotel where people came for southern delicacies o Washed it down with whiskey Sheet music about Dixie • 1890-1930 music about Dixie themes • “Coon songs” o Southern blacks • 1910 – more about south generally o Still, racial stereotypes present in lyrics and artwork on covers o Music being produced in north! o Also most of them written by jews...(represent...we also did Christmas songs, go jews) • South had become paradise, not in reality, but in its branding, and as a myth. Class 4: The Rise of Department Stores Leach: Land of Desire Leach: Land of Desire Introduction – The Land of Desire and the Culture of Consumer Capitalism Emergence of a new culture coming to dominateAmerican life • Quest for pleasure, security, comfort and material well-being • Focused on amusing yourself, taking care of yourself as opposed to respecting the King, fearing thy master, praying, obeying, etc o Much more individualistic Post Civil War: • American capitalism produce a distinct culture o Unconnected to traditional family or community values, religion, or political democracy WWI: • American consumers being enticed into consumer pleasure and indulgence • Many Protestant settlers had believed the Second Coming of Christ was destined to be fulfilled in America o By early 1900s, this myth was transformed, urbanized and commercialized, severed from its religious roots and refocused on personal satisfaction through new “pleasure palaces”  Department stores, theaters, restaurants, hotels, dance halls and amusement parks Cult of the “new” • Phrases like “New World” and “new nation” and “innovative ways” were common • Newness and change had become traditional inAmerica By end of the century: • Commercial capitalism latched onto cult of the new o Fully identified with it and took it over • Now, innovation tied to production of more and more commodities • Fashion and style at the center • Any group that came to the US had to accept this elemental feature ofAmerican capitalist culture Democratization of Desire: • Emerged alongside cult of the new • After 1885, in the wake of the rapid industrializing of the US, idea of democracy took new form o Wealth lay less in land and more in capital (owned by a small minority of people with access to wealth) o At the same time, manyAmericans losing control over their work, dependent on the owners of capital for their wages and well-being • In this context, new conception of democracy fostered by growing incomes and a rising standard of living o People depended on those with capital o Highly individualistic conception of democracy emphasized self-pleasure and self-fulfillment over community or civic well-being • Two sides to this concept: o Stressed the diffusion of comfort and prosperity as the centerpiece of the American experience o New conception included the democratizing of desire, or, more precisely, equal rights to desire the same goods and to enter the world of comfort and luxury • New definition of democracy met political opposition o Yet new market notion of democracy had many advocates and quickly rose to prominence • Democratizing individual desire – rather than wealth or political or economic power – was perhaps one of the new culture’s most notable contributions to modern society Influence of money: • In the past, men and women often made their goods and relied on different currencies to exchange • Gradually, more and moreAmericans, no longer owning land or tools, relied on money incomes – wages and salaries – for their security and well-being • Also became dependent on “goods made by unknown hands” • From now on, pecuniary values would constitute the base measure for all other values Consumption as a means to reach happiness: • Along with cult of the new, democratization of desire and pecuniary value had not been dominant in earlier decades Three matters central to the understanding of why and how the culture of consumer capitalism emerged: • Development of a new commercial aesthetic • Collaboration among economic and noneconomic institutions • Growth of a new class of brokers New set of commercial enticements/commercial aesthetic: • After 1880,American business began to create a new commercial aesthetic to move and sell goods in volume • Offered a vision of the good life and of paradise • Visual materials (color, glass and light) used to suggest a “this-worldly paradise” to consumers Alliances among diverse institutions, noneconomic and economic: • Worked together to reinforce the democratization of desire and cult of the new • National corporations, department stores, investment banks, hotel chains and the entertainment industry o New group of brokers (real estate, stock brokers, corporate lawyers, investment bankers, etc.) worked at the center of this group to facilitate the movement of images, money and information o Focused on forging profitable relationships o Ongoing inflation of desire Culture of consumer capitalism, despite opposition, took hold and came to dominate and to reshape theAmerican experience Ch. 1 – The Dawn of a Commercial Empire • By the turn of the century, retail dry good houses of the past surpassed by huge department stores o Dept. stores symbolic of the essence of the consumer revolution  Sold a vast range of goods under one roof  Controlled masses of capital  Eliminated small-scale competition • By late 1890s, so many goods flowing out of factories into stores that businessmen feared overproduction o In response, a steady stream of enticements – display and decoration, advertising, fashion, style, service – were used to break up the logjam of goods and awaken Americans to “the ability to want and choose” “The Master Institutions of Civilized Life” • New economy and culture centered around revolution in the production of industrial and agricultural goods and the advent of the profit-driven corporation • All this production a result of the addition of new tools and continuous process machines • Modern industrial corporations developed as a means of meeting the need for capital by large industries o Modern businesses were profit-driven machines o Functioned under the model of transformation of capital-as-money into capital-as- commodities followed by a retransformation of capital-as-commodities to capital- as-money • Surge in the expansion of the service industry o Hotel and restaurant business boomed after Civil War and railroads were built • Merchandising saw burst in development o Dry goods stores, chain stores, mail orders and specialty houses “From Marble Palaces to Masses of Goods and Capital” • Before 1880, dept. stores did not exist, neighborhood dealers operated o Next twenty years cities filled with large retail establishments • Alexander Turney Stewart o Possessed nation’s biggest stores in New York in 1860s/1870s  Closed thing to what we know as a modern retailer  One of US’s first subjects of fantasy and myths about what wealth could giveAmericans • Many merchants began taking steps to creating national chains as part of consolidation going on in manufacturing • Other retailers expanded by absorbing their competitors “The Retail Wars of the 1890s” • Success of mass market due to: o Capacity to summon large amounts of capital under one roof o Alliances among merchants, reformers and state governments  All devouring monsters destroying the little man • Chicago in wake of 1893 depression, stores like Marshall Field’s weathered the storm and prospered, driving up real estate values such that they became unaffordable to competitors while others went bankrupt o Movement launched by coalition of small retailers and unskilled workers to drive the department stores out of the city o Data showed large scale retailers didn’t encroach on single line stores as much as people thought • By 1900 wars to vanquish department stores began to peter out o Many small retailers rebounded after the depression o Marshall Field’s declared it intended to serve both the wealthy and “masses of shoppers…we have built this great institution for the people” “Greatest Merchant in America” • John Wanamaker of Philadelphia • Events propelling him to success o Alexander Stewart died o The country’s first world fair unlocked the floodgates on what became a steady flow of goods “Crisis of Distribution” • Major merchants o John Wanamaker, Marshall Field, Henry Siegel and Percy and Jesse Straus • As corporations and
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