IR Final Exam Crash Course.doc

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International Relations
CAS IR 271
Michael Corgan

Global and Trade Finance 1890s- World trade began. Britain dominated GAAT (general agreement on Tariffs and Trade) o Began in 1948 in order to achieve o No country can be wealthy by staying outside the trade system o Succeeded by WTO in 1995 but basic rules still in effect • London is the international trading bank of the world WTO (World Trade Organization) o Continuation of GATT o Only Syria and Serbia of GATT did not rejoin o 157 members, Vanuatu and Russia join in 2012 o Capitalist states tend to ignore the poorer states Control of World Trade o Trade is mostly north-north o There is no world central bank (government does not control) o Private enterprise runs the system (capitalists) o Government only controls spending and how much currency is produced Global Finance o Conference after WW1 (Bretton Woods Conference 1944) o Two UN Structures:  World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and development) • Long-term capital development project. You lent money to people to build their systems back up (communication, water etc.) and you get your money back  International Monetary Fund (IMF) o Finance regulated mostly by non-state actors o There is no international Central Bank o Money is the single biggest traded commodity World Bank (188 Members) o World Bank HQ, Washington, DC o Designed for capital development lending o Goal” reduction of poverty  Sometimes it becomes problematic because they provide things to poorer states that they do not need; for example, interstate roads, when they actually need water wells to supply their people o By agreement, president is an American  Jim Yong Kim IMF H (188 Members) o HQ in Washington, DC o Designed for liquidity lending o Goals: monetary cooperation, financial stability, facilitate trade, sustainable growth o By agreement, president is not an American o Christine Lagarde Finance and Trade Issues o Money—currency valuation and speculation o Balance of trade/payments o Tries to be zero all the time, but it does not have to be  US is always negative by billions of dollars every month • How? Why can’t Thailand and Cyprus do that? Because people invest in the US. o Structural adjustment policies of World Bank and IMF o New International Poverty and Hunger Poverty o Defining characteristic of “3 World,” “global south” Poverty and World Response o Market “inefficiencies” blamed by liberals o “if you’re poor, it’s your fault” o Females and children most affected o Because they tend not to have a voice in government affairs o Growing problem even in developed countries o Debt Crisis for LDCs o Structural adjustment programs o UN Millennium Goals, e.g. 0.7% GDP to aid o US is only at 0.15% Poverty and Development o Developed and developing states have different views o Goals of development constantly shifting Improving Development o Traditional approach—give aid o Modern approach—address basic causes—but what are the ‘basic causes’? Modernization Theory o Social/cultural Impact o Agrarian to urban o Urbanization essential o City becomes the focus of new ideas  Science and technologies  Social mobility Critiques of Development o Traditional institutions Causes of Hunger o Production—not yet a problem o Distribution—biggest single problem o Wars—food supplies as a weapon o Social inequities—poor tend to be more obese o *** Nauru’s Case Study 19-28 (Quiz Chapters) The Constitution and its Founding The U.S. Constitution as we know it is a document that has been influenced not only by previous philosophers, such as John Locke and Thomas Paine, but also by the mere history of our country. Ideas of the Constitution began during the time when the colonists started questioning the British authority over their affairs (Janda 39). While British Parliament strived to maintain order among the colonists, the people in America were striving for liberty. Although certain agreements were made to balance the two opposing point of views, there never came a peaceful solution. One example of an attempt to make a compromise between Britain and America was the quid pro quo on imperial control: the king controlled America’s foreign affairs and overseas trade and Parliament (British legislature), while everything else was left to colonial rule. However, this endeavor did not do so much good (73). As the British began to impose more and more taxes on the Americans to pay off costs such as the mere administering of the colonies, more and more upheavals began to brew. This was the beginning of revolutionary ideas; Britain began taxing on everyday items, such as printed matter, tea, etc., and thus the colonists wanted reformation. The Sons of Liberty, a group of merchants, lawyers, and other common people, was among the first revolutionary groups to oppose the British government over their liberties. Eventually, seeing as vocal rebellion was taking no effect upon the British, violence seemed to be the only answer for the colonists (Goldman 65). On December 16, 1773, the Boston Tea Party, a hostile situation in which colonists dumped numerous amounts of tea chests into the harbor, sparked Britain’s attention. As their next move was to set up the Coercive Acts (an attempt to remind the colonists that the British were still in fact in charge of them), the British demanded order by assembling soldiers around the American colonies, including in people’s private homes (Janda 68). Ideas for amending their government provoked during the time in which colonists wanted freedom the most, at which time they formed the First Continental Congress. This was a group composed of representatives from all colonies, except Georgia, set up as an effort to restore harmony between the British and the American colonies. As controversy brewed over time, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams formed the first draft of the Declaration of Independence, a document that clearly stated the roles of the government in terms of the people’s values. The principles of this document were rooted in the writings of John Locke, when he discussed the social contract theory—a theory that stated that people agree to establish rulers for certain purposes, but they have the right to resist or remove rulers who violate those purposes (Alan 43-47). While the Declaration of Independence was a document on its own, it was certainly a spark in the rise of the ideals of the Constitution. After the war of independence finally terminated, about a year and half later, the Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. Conclusively, after upheavals and disorder under the Confederation, this was another step in the building of the Constitution (Goldman 101). Aside from John Locke’s theories, Thomas Paine’s Common Sense shaped much of the writings of the Declaration. This pamphlet offered the American colonists a justification for freedom from British rule at a time when the question of independence was still unresolved. Paine crafted his work in a style by which common people understood; eschewing the philosophy of Enlightenment writers, Paine relied on citations from the Bible to implement his values to people (Barry 88). The Framers, a group of men who formed a convention to create a constitution based on the country’s needs, collaborated in 1787 to write these fundamental principals. The main concerns discussed in the Constitution are people’s basic civil rights (declared in the Bill of Rights—the first ten amendments of the document), the banning of slavery, and the right for women to vote. The Constitution also set up three main branches of government; the Legislative, the Executive, and the Judiciary. Each one has its own role in how the law is made and used, as described in the Constitution (Alan 89-92). The Federalist Papers demonstrate the controversies over selling the Constitution. The two groups, federalists (affirmative) and antifederalists (negative), formed the bases of the first American political parties. As like every form of government, the Constitution is not perfect. People have various opinions about what should be added, deleted, or altered in the document. The creation of the Amendment Process, the process by which the Constitution can be revised, has given the government the ability to enhance its guidelines to make the country a better success. The Constitution provides that an amendment may be proposed either by the Congress with a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by two-thirds of the State legislatures. Years of debate were and still are ceaseless as to what should be deleted, added in, or replaced in the Constitution (Kheng, “The Constitutional Amendment Process”). The Constitution has changed and developed over the years in order to accommodate the people’s needs. The suppression of slavery marked a great step towards the enhancement of life in America. Today, using the Amendment process, the government is continuously improving our society (Kheng, “The Constitutional Amendment Process”). The Congress of Vienna was much more successful than the Versailles Conference because of its ability to stabilize power. As a result, nations were able to re-unify and re-gain their society. Although the Versailles Conference re-organized and stabilized economic issues, it led through many hardships, including the Great Depression. The Congress of Vienna’s success can most vividly be viewed by balancing power, keeping order in society, and creating powerful forces for change. During the Congress of Vienna, considerations of power were dealt with, in attempt to keep any one country from dominating Europe. In order to accomplish this goal, the political and military forces that guaranteed the independence of the great powers were to be kept balanced. For instance, in order for the Congress to keep the Russian territorial gains even, new territories were to be given to Prussia and Austria. Through the practices of balancing power, the philosophy of conservatism was founded, creating a more systematic society. In order to keep order in society, the countries participating in the Congress of Vienna adopted the principle of intervention. These countries, according to the principle, were able to send armies into countries where there were revolutions needing to be restored, in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones. Although Britain disagreed to these terms, the other great powers continued on their task of keeping order all over, and peace came as a result. On the other hand, in attempt to keep balance in society, the Versailles Conference led society into Great Depression for many years, until finally, peace was just beginning to form. As a result of the conservative government’s work to maintain old order, the idea of liberalism came to work. Liberals believed that all freedoms should be guaranteed by a written document, for example, the American Bill of Rights was an outcome of this philosophy. Although not everyone had the right to vote under liberalism, it was the beginning of change in terms of freedom guarantees, whereas the Versailles Conference did not mention any type of liberty. The Congress of Vienna held many more accomplishments than those of the Versailles Conference. The ability of balancing power, stabilizing society throughout Europe, and creating freedom for people allowed Europe to maintain peace much more sufficiently than the Versailles Conference did. Also, the Versailles Conference took much more time to stabilize economy and society throughout, as the Congress of Vienna had their goals set up directly from the very beginning. . Especially in a college environment, it is difficult to go through your days without having to listen to people express their views on the matter. I find it more interesting, however, to see how this debate is unfolding in the grander scale. What are most countries’ views on cannabis? A crop that was once used to make clothes and ropes, and was once a key player in exports, has been criminalized in almost every country since the twentieth century. I found this article interesting in that it raises concerns that we could most certainly discuss through various IR theories. According to the article, many citizens across the globe have been demonstrating their desire to have marijuana legalized. However, many countries, such as Cambodia, rely heavily on trading with the US in order to maintain a stable economy. If these countries go against the United States’ stance on the issue, then chances are that they will have a bad rapport with the US, thus leading to an economic crisis. In recent news, we have seen that in many areas, including states within the United States, governments have become more and more liberal on the topic of marijuana. The article provides a list of countries where marijuana is decriminalized, or at least are highly considering doing so. My question for the class is not to have students share their points of view on this topic. Rather, I would like to discuss how economic standings would vary, should the plant become legal (or at least decriminalized) in more countries, including the US. And if marijuana remains illegal in the US, how would that affect liberalism and democratization across the globe as a whole? This topic can obviously be discussed with other drugs, but marijuana is one that is widely known to be on the border line: many people want it legalized, while governments still want to maintain control. What do you think? Cyprus: A Nation Divided Since the dawn of civilization, many empires have risen and fallen because of constant instability within the dominion of power influences in Cyprus from other neighboring nations. In order to understand the challenges that are set forth in Cyprus today, one must first understand and define its problems. Historically, the many continuous conflicts over the domination of Cyprus have affected the present economy and government of its people. Additionally, the different cultures, religions, and languages which have spread throughout the island of Cyprus are the major contributors to the division that takes place today. The geographic location of Cyprus is a key pull factor for neighboring countries that want to control it. The island sits in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, and lies off of the southwest coast of Turkey, west of Syria, and northeast of Egypt. Cyprus is rich in many natural resources, such as clay, copper, salt, timber, and marble. Citrus, vegetables, cotton, olives, potatoes, and cereal grains are also its agricultural products. Historically, the island of Cyprus has gone through different cultural changes that were brought upon by the invasion of its land because of its location and natural resources (Arsu 1). The first existence of culture in Cyprus dates back to 6000 BC. Around 1500 BC, Cyprus began its contact with the Middle East, and eventually, Greece started influencing its civilization by having its merchants settling there. The island began as a trade center, where Mycenaean merchants, the first Greek settlers, traveled there (around 1500 BC) to sell and buy goods from other Mediterranean countries (Arsu 2). Consequently, they introduced the Greek Orthodox religion to the region (Kershner 1). As years passed, Greek religion, language, and culture spread throughout the entire area. The Greek traders controlled the island until around 800 BC, when the Phoenician traders (modern day Lebanon) took control of the island, which subsequently brought its cultural influences to the region (Kershner 1). Due to the fact that the island of Cyprus was constantly being controlled by the outside empires and rulers, while having merchants and traders as its settlers, the island never established an official government, and therefore was easily dominated (Kershner 2). Subsequently, Cyprus was conquered by Assyrian and Egyptian rulers, and the Persian Empire respectively (from 800 BC to 300 BC). With each of these rulers, Cyprus was again introduced to different cultures, religions, and languages, both socially and economically (Tavernise 1). Around 58 BC, the Roman Empire took over the island, and Christianity was introduced (Tavernise 1). At this point, Cyprus was known to be the first country to be ruled by a Christian leader, Saint Paul (Tavernise 2). When the Byzantine Empire took control of the island of Cyprus from 395 AD to 1191 AD (during Richard I of England), conflicts started escalating more over different cultures and religions, which had influenced Cyprus for many years (Economist.Cyprus After the Election 1). From 1192 to 1489, Cyprus was ruled under a feudal system with Roman Catholicism being its official religion (under the rule of Guy de Lusignan). After 1489, due to the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, the Venetians seized power of the island. The Venetian rulers built solid walls and put blockades all around Famagusta and Nicosia, two major ci
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