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Boston University
International Relations
CAS IR 271
Ivan Arreguin- Toft

IR Lecture 01211401302014Three dimensions of IR Violence Economy IdeasArguments 1 logic 2 evidenceIf the logic is wrong the argument is wrong Evidence is where most global fights and arguments take placeTools theory and historical cases Three theoretical traditions in IRRealismLiberalismRadicalismRealism 101History of IR to 1895The state hasnt always existed A world run by princes teenage boys looking to solve by fighting30 years war 1618Thomas Hobbes translator of Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian WarIn an insane world its the sanest option Terminator IIPhilosophy contemporary with two of Europes most brutal warsPassionate about geometry attempts a geometry of politicsKey argument violence will persist in the absence of a central and absolute authorityThe condition of war is nasty brutish and shortDiplomacy of violenceBrute force pain for the sake of painCoercion hurting some so others change Nuclear weapons not more destructive than conventional weapons but cause their destruction much much faster advantage of speed vs conventional weaponsConventional war time to think and confer as opposed to one direct action of nuclear warfareRealism neorealism offensive realismBelief that war THE essential feature of IRStates are the most important actors There is no sovereign above all states war is enduring and international feature of politicsRealists dont believe we can get rid of war but also dont think its possible to irradiate war War can be managed not cured War matters most states matter most no global sovereign means no lasting peaceWWII seems makes everyone a realist Search for the science of politics leads from Morgenthau to Waltz Mearshemimer offensive realism defensive realism Anarchy lack of a central power sovereign You dont need an army to have offensive military capability Uncertainty about capability use or notIntentions 1 we cant really know what they are 2 they are definitely subject to change OR States all seek a minimum to survive must seek power after power therefore youll never get peace Defensive realism is the best idea of realism The security dilemmaA situation in which in increase in one states security necessarily decreases the security of another state even though the first stats intentions are not hostileImplications arms races spiral modelOffensedefense balance a widely shared assessment technology geography as to whether it is relatively easier less costly risky to attack or defend In the past defense was feminized as opposed to offense which was hypermasculinized Security dilemmas will be most intense when offense thought to be easy and weakest when defense is thought to be easy Realism assumes rational unitary actors stats and argues for the priority of existential physical threats in interstate relationsWar is natural and hence inevitable and unjudgable Question is realism a theory a collection of theories or is it more a perspective Hw self assessment where youre from what you want from the course where you are at bu how are you in academics year etc9
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