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CAS NE 101 (15)

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Boston University
CAS NE 101
Wayne Korzan

Levels of analysis Proximate vs. ultimate Evolution Population Variation Phenotypic Genetic (heritable) Genes Alleles Natural selection Ecological selection Sexual selection Adaptation Fitness Phylogeny Convergent evolution (analogy) Homology Camera eye Blind spot Compound eye Eye control genes (Pax6, eyeless, etc) Example of nervous system adaptations (via ecological selection) – somatosensory cortex Example of nervous system adaptations (via sexual selection) – zebra finch song Basic phylogeny of the animals (metazoa) Porifera Cnidaria Bilateria Deuterostomes Protostomes Responses to stimuli in organisms w/o nervous systems Parsimony Ancestral function Important steps in the evolution of neurons (lecture 11 slides 41-48) Decentralized CNS (nerve net) Bilateral symmetry Cephalization Universal principles of brain organization Regionalization Serial and parallel sensory streams Developmental patterning Gene expression Developmental patterning genes Pax6 Triune brain hypothesis (and reasons why it is incorrect) Evolutionary trade-offs (fitness costs vs. fitness benefits) Mosaic brain evolution General patterns of brain scaling in animals Unique qualities of primate brains Hypotheses of brain size expansion in primates (including humans) Expensive tissue
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