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COMPLETE Neuroscience Notes (got 90% on final)

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CAS NE 101
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CHAPTER 1 Neuroscience – study of the nervous system and its role in behavior • Birth of psychology – 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany • Mind-brain problem deals with what the mind is and what its relationship is to the brain o Mind control brain? Vice versa? Mind=brain? o Mind is like weather. “weather is interfering with my travel plans”, no such thing • Monism-the idea that the mind and the body consist of the same substance o stemming from the Greek word monos = alone/single • materialistic monism - monists think that the body and mind and everything else is physical • dualism – the idea that the mind and the brain and separate o body is material o mind is nonmaterial o mind influences behavior by interacting with brain • Hermann von Helmholtz discovered that nerves were operated by electricity by stimulating animal’s nerves and brains with electricity • Localization is the idea that specific areas of the brain carry out specific functions • Phrenology – the idea that emotions and intellect was located in a precise area of the brain (true) • Equipotentiality – the idea that the brain functions as an undifferentiated whole o So if something is wrong, it’s about how much is damaged, not where • Heredity – the percentage of the variation in a characteristic that can be attributed to genetic factors • Biopsychology developed out of physiology and philosophy as early psychologists adopted empiricism • Mind is a product of the brain, believing that mental activity can be explained in terms of the brain’s functions Connection: what is the circuitry of the brain? • Neurons and synapses (connections between neurons) • Neural circuits • Brain systems Cognition: How are psychological processes supported by the brain? Compartmentalization: where are specific functions located in the brain? Camillo Golgi • developed the “black reaction” which stained a small proportion of cells • believed in reticular theory Ramon y Cajal • identified neurons as discrete units of the brain, proving the “neuron” theory over the “reticular” theory o Reticular theory=spiderweb o Neuron theory=stuff is transmitted through neuron cells • Cajal speculated that dendrites received inputs and axons sent output, and that increased connectivity supports intelligence Galvani • discovered that electrical stimulation could activate nerves and muscles o Unlike electricity, nerve conduction does not require a completed circuit, and therefore used its own an electrical potential: animal electricity Otto Loewi • Discovered the chemical, rather than electrical, basis of neural transmission • Key experiment involved vagus stimulation to slow a heart rate, then extraction of fluid and using it to influence beat rate of another heart – discovered acetylcholine o Acetylcholine slows down heartbeats • Led to exploration of a large number of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and neuromodulators Charles Sherington • elaborated on early findings on the reflex arc • Argued that neurons are independent units based on degeneration, and physiology (one way conduction, delay in transmission); coined the term synapse • Outlined complex circuitry of reflexes, including excitatory and inhibitory connections that support reciprocal inhibition • Speculated that higher functions result from concatenation of reflex pathways Herman Ebbinghaus • Set about to create a parallel of psychophysics • Formalized the study of memory: forgetting curve Karl Lashley • Sensory motor reflex • Found that knife cuts that interrupted connections between sensory and motor areas had little or not effect, but larger lesions in any area produced larger deficits: “equipotentiality” and “mass action” o Mass action is negatively correlated between performance and tissue o memories were not localized to one part of the brain, but were widely distributed throughout the cerebral cortex. o His work with localization and memory helped in the future research of the brain, which proved that the brain was more complicated than initially thought Edward Tolman • Latent learning – the rats can spontaneously know where to go when there are reinforcements • rats were capable were learning without reinforcements and developed “cognitive maps” with expectancies and use of “insight” Donald Hebb • set about to solve the problem of how neural circuits could support behavior • key ideas: cell assembly, network of neurons, connected by plasticity • associative transivity – associate things without direct connection Thomas Willis • Discovered left side of the brain controlled right side and vice versa Franz Joseph Gall • Discovered/developed idea brain had localization o Size of an area reflected the extent of that function Paul Broca & Carl Wernicke • Broca’s area – lose capacity for speech production but could comprehend o You I go play on field • Wernicke’s area – they can speak fine but lacked comprehension o I would like to play with your feet Gustav and Fritsch & Julius Hitzig • Stimulated cortical areas to show contralateral control o Stimulation map • Led to sophisticated cortical mapping that characterized the motor and sensory homunculus and validated the theory of localization CHAPTER 2 • In the brain 10% are neuron cells, 90% are glial cells • Motor neuron – carries commands to the muscles and organs o Dendrites – extensions that branch out from the cell body to receive information from other neurons o Axon – the tail that carries information to other locations o Myelin sheath is wrapped around the axon and increases speed o Bulbs/terminals – at the end of axon. Terminals contain CHEMICAL neurotransmitters which the neuron releases to communicate with a muscle or an organ or the next neuron in a chain o Multipolar because dendrites and axons extend in several different directions from the cell body o Connections in long distances • Sensory neuron – carries information from the body and from the outside world into the brain and spinal chord o Unipolar (outside brain) or bipolar (inside brain) o Connections in long distances • Interneuron – connect one neuron to another in the same part of the brain or spinal chord o Multipolar o No long axons because they make connections in short distances o Most numerous o Makes connections between sensory and motor neurons to produce reflexes • Resting potential – the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the membrane of a neuron at rest o -70 • Glial cells – nonneural cells that provide a numbe of supporting functions to neurons o Hold neurons together o Increase the speed of conductions in neurons • Increase conduction speed o Larger axons o Graded local potentials because they travel down the axon faster than action potentials o Glial cells produce myelin  Wraps around the axon to insulate it  Gaps in myelin sheath = nodes of ranvier  Saltatory conduction – action potentials that jump from node to node in a form of transmission • Neurons form seven times as many connections in the presence of glial cells • Synapse – the conection between two neurons o Synaptic cleft – not in direct physical contact. Small separation o Presynaptic neuron – transmitting to another o Postsynaptic neuron– receiving neuron • Otto loewi discovered that transmission at the synapse is chemical • Neurotransmitters are stored in the terminals in membrane-enclosed containers called vesicles • Ionotropic receptors open the channels directly to produce the immediate reactions required for muscle activity and sensory processing • Metabotropic receptors open channels indirectly and slowly to produce longer lasting effects • Opening ion channels on the dendrites o Hypopolarization is excitatory and increase chances of action potential  Receptors open sodium+ channels o Hyperp olarization is inbitory and decreases the chances of action potential  Receptors open potassium+, chloride- channels • Takes 10-mV depolarization to trigger an action potential • A single neuron has a small effect, so a postsynaptic neuron must combine potentials from many neurons to fire. This is good. o Spatial summation combines potentials occurring simultaneously at different locations on the dendrites and cell body o Temporal summation combines potentials arriving a short time apart • Reuptake-transmitter is taken back into the terminals by membrane proteins called transporters. Transmitters are recycled • How to regulate synaptic activity? o Axoaxonic synapses – a third neuron releases transmitter onto the terminals of the presynaptic neuron  Presynaptic excitation or presynaptic inhibition o Autoreceptors on the presynaptic terminals sense the amount of transmitter on the cleft; if the amount is excessive, the presynaptic neuron reduces its output • Glial cells regulate synaptic activity o Surround the synapse and prevent neurotransmitter from spreading to other synapses o Reuptake-Absorb neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft and recycle it for the neuron’s reuse o Influence synaptic activity by varying the amount of transmitter absorbed • Lorenzo discovered that temporal (time-related) variations in firing pattern form a code that the brain can use FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM • The nervous system is all undifferentiated at first • Forebrain – the most complex o Cerebrum o Hippocampus o Striatum o Amygdala o Retina o Thalamus o Hypothalamus • Gyrus – bumps • Sulcus – the grooves between the bumps (fissures?) • PLANES o Coronal plane – vertical slices of the brain like looking straight onto it o Horizontal plane – looking top down to a horizontal slice of a brain o Sagittal plane – slicing the brain between the ears and looking at it from a sideways view • LOCATIONS in the brain o Rostral means nose, it is the most front of the brain o Caudal, the end of the brain o Dorsal (superior) is upwards o Ventral (inferior) is inward • Brain has 3 layers of protection (PAD) o Pia-fills up all the gaps in the brain, thin layer on the brain, like a piece of plastic o Arachnoid - space that lies between the pia and the dura o Dura-first layer of protection • Dorsal of the spinal chord is sensory • Ventral side is motor information • Spinal chord is wrapped in dura and is protected by cerebrial spinal fluid • Gray matter of spinal chord = cell bodies of the neuronshe • Cell bodies of the ventral motor neurons are in the spinal chord • sensory neurons and of the dorsal neurons are outside of the spinal chord o Motor+interneurons=central nervous system • Everything goes through thalamus before it goes through the cortex except for olfaction • Amygdala processes emotional stuff like anger, depression o In medial temporal lobe • Hippocampus facilitates memory, storing, creating, and forming • Basal ganglia /stratum – motor part of the brain and is involved in hosts in disorders like OCD and parkinsons disease CHAPTER 3 • Central nervous system = brain and spinal chord • Neuron is a single neural cell and a nerve is a bundle of axons • Interneurons are the primary information processing unit in the cortex • Frontal lobe o Control of movement o Broca’s area o Prefrontal cortex – largest region in the human brain  Decision making • Parietal lobe o Primary somatosensory cortex  Processes skin senses  Informs us about body positions  Damaged: paralyzed and denies that the limb is theirs • Temporal lobe o Auditory cortex o Visual and auditory association areas o Wernicke’s area o Inferior temporal cortex  Visual identification  Damaged: Cannot recognize a spoon but if you feel it you will know what it is o Important role in memory • Occipital lobe o Visual cortex • Midbrain contain structures that have secondary roles in vision, audition, and movement. Basic motor processes o Superior colliculi – help guide eye movements and fixation of gaze o Inferior colliculi – locate the direction of sounds o Substantia nigra – projects to the basal ganglia to integrate movements o Ventral tegmental area – plays a role in the rewarding effects of food, sex, drugs o Reticular formation - comas • Hind brain o Pons – sleep and arousal, part of the reticular formation, reflexes, attention, motor activity o Medulla – control of essential life processes o Cerebellum – movement predictions, this gets affected when you’re drunk • The sensory neurons enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root of each spinal nerve and the axons of the motor neurons pass out of the spinal cord through the ventral root • Meninges – 3 layered protector for CNS o Celebrospinal fluid between meninges and CNS • STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT o Proliferation – cells that will become neurons divide and multiply very fast o Migrate – moving from the ventricular zone outward to their final location  Helped by specialized radial glial cells o Circuit formation – axons of developing neurons grow toward their target cells and form functional connections  Like the retina of the eye goes t othe thalamus  Axons form growth cones, which sample the environment for directional cues o Circuit pruning – eliminating excess neurons and synapses o Last final step is myelination and is not complete until adolescents • Choroid plexus creates cerebral spinal fluid • Pyramids lie ventral to the brainstem o Pyramidal decassusation – the point where information crosses in the brainstem • end of spinal chord is cauda equina and looks like a horse’s tail • auditory is not crossed, visual info is crossed • optic chiasm – where vision crosses • multimodal – where visual info comes in with your auditory info • receptors>brainstem>midbrain>thalamus>primary cortex>secondary and tertiary cortex • ventral stream is dedicated to visual objects • dorsal stream devoted to providing visual information in terms of motor • topographic detail – contralateral representation o topographic map o enlarged represent
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