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Dr. Farkas PH100 Final Study Guide.docx

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CAS PH 100
Eliana Stratico

Philosophy 100 Final Study Guide PART 1: Terms from Lecture Determinism – the theory that all events, including human actions and choices, are, without exception, totally determined Indeterminism – the view that some events are not determined Compatibilism – the view that holds that determinism is true and that determinism is compatible with free will & responsibility Incompatibilism – a kind of determinist view that rejects the compatibility of determinism and free will No Choice Principle – if p, then q…no one has had any choice about q 1) Suppose that P and that no one has (or ever had) any choice about p 2) Suppose also that the following conditional is true and that no one has (or ever had) any choice about its truth. If p, then q 3) It follows that Q and that no one has or ever had any choice about whether Q Libertarianism – in metaphysics, the theory that we possess free will and that our free will is neither determined nor the result of random chance, but instead the result of rational agency. In politics and economics, the theory that emphasizes the importance of personal liberty as opposed to state interference. Causality vs. Constraint (Ayer) – causality is when I am forced by another person to do what he wants; If I am so strongly under constraint that I know longer deliberate whether or not I want to do it…then I am considered constrained; Just because there is a factual relation between cause and effect does mean we are constrained Dualism – generally, the view that there are two kinds of stuff. More specifically, “dualism” is associated with the doctrine that mental states, events, or processes are distinct from physical or material states, events or processes Idealism – the theory that there are only immaterial minds and their mental “contents”. The body itself is nothing but a collection of actual or possible sense date – sights, sounds, touches, and smells. By holding that there is only mind and no matter, idealism avoids the problem of causal interaction between radically different kinds of substances Physicalism – the theory that every object, state, event, or process can be completely described and explained by the physical sciences. And we are to understand that some things in the physical sciences are not material – for instance, gravitational fields and electromagnetic radiation. According to this use of the term, one could believe that physicalism is true but materialism is false Materialism – the view that everything – every object, state, event, and process – is a material object, state, event, and process, and nothing else. According to materialists, there is no immaterial mind or soul thus no problem of interaction between radically different kinds of substances Occasionalism – a kind of dualism stating that mind and body do not really interact. Being kicked does not cause my pain; rather, it is the occasion for God, whose infinite nature somehow encompasses both mind and matter, to cause me to feel pain. Similarly my mental states are occasion for God to cause my body to act Conceivability test – Philosophy 100 Final Study Guide Epiphenomenalism – the view that there is only one form of interaction between the mental and the physical, that in which the physical affects the mental. In this view, the mental can never affect the physical. The mind is not itself a material thing; rather, it is a distinct but causally impotent by-product of the world of physics. This is a kind of dualism Identity thesis – is a version of strong materialism: it holds that all mental states and events are in fact physical states and events. It is a contingent thesis about the things in the world which our words refer to Functionalism – generally, the view that concepts should be defined according to their function. In cognitive theory, the view that mental states, events, and processes, are “functional” states of the brain (or other hardware). Functional states of a decide are those that are defined in terms of their relations to the device’s input, its internal transitions, and its output. According to the functionalist, these causal relations and dispositions are what constitute the mental. Eliminative materialism – the view that mental states and processes as we ordinarily conceive of them simply do not exist, in the same way as witches and phlogiston do not exist. Leibniz’ Law – identical things share identical properties Intentionality/Intentional state – the property that some mental states have of being about something. Thus, one belief might be about Caesar’s crossing the Rubicon, and another might be about the first to orbit the Earth. By contrast, a mental state such as a free-floating anxiety need not be about anything in particular and thus not have intentionality. Two-way interactionalism – the commonsense assumption that mind and body interact causally The disembodiment Argument – 1. I can conceive of experiencing this very pain while possessing no features. I can conceive of experiencing this very pain while disembodied 2. If I can conceive of a particular scenario occurring, then that scenario is possible So, 3. It is possible that this very pain occurs in a disembodied being 4. If this very pain was identical to some physical state, then it could not possible occur in a disembodied being So, 5. This very pain is not identical to any physical state THEREFORE: The identity theses is false Argument from Certainty – 1) I may be absolutely certain of my own experiences, when I have them 2) I cannot have the same degree of certainty about the existence of any physical state, including my own brain-states C) So (by Leibniz’s Law) my conscience experiences are not in fact identical with brain-states Argument from Color – 1) I am experiencing a fading green after-image Philosophy 100 Final Study Guide 2) No brain-states are green C) So (By Leibniz’s Law) my after-image is not identical with any brain-state Argument from Complete Knowledge – 1) Complete knowledge of physical states would not imply knowledge of what experiences feel like 2) If experiences were physical states, then complete knowledge of the physical would imply complete knowledge of experiences C) So experiences are not physical states Factual Knowledge – The basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it. Examples include knowledge of terminology or specific details of a discipline. Practical Knowledge – Any knowledge that teaches you how to act, and mainly concerned with good/evil, right/wrong Inverted spectrum thought experiment – we have no way of comparing our inner qualia. And since I shall make all the same observational discriminations among objects that you will, there is no way to tell whether my spectrum is inverted relative to yours EX: could see the chalkboard as white (because of rods and cones) but call it black Intertheoretic reduction – one theory (T1) reduces to another theory (T2) when the propositions are principles of the first are entailed by the second, then applied to the same cases, but the second theory does not contain some items (such as “light: or “belief”) from the first. These items in T1 have been reduced to something else in T2 Subjective character of experience (Nagel) – what it is like to be a specific organism, not like any of the reductions, cannot analyze this in a series of functional state, we can describe conscience mental states in a functionalist way but you will not give a complete analyze of conscience mental states The memory theory of personal identity – consciousness always accompanies thinking, it is what makes ever one his or her own self thereby distinguish man from other beings, as far as our memory reaches that is as far as our consciousness goes, causes problems because consciousness is interrupted by forgetfulness, it is the same consciousness that makes a man himself, personal identity depends on that only Locke’s definition of a person – thinking intelligent being, has reason and reflection, can consider itself as itself in any situation “same soul, same body” principle – claims that there is a correlation between bodies and souls; a certain soul is around whenever a certain body is. actually remembering vs. seeming to remember – actual memories are true, and are thus connected to facts of the world & that is, the world causes real memories to be what they are. A person amounts to apparent memory and a causal process split brain – Two separate streams of consciousness & have two series of thoughts and sensations & be unaware of having the other Ego theory – a particular Ego, or subject of experiences explains person’s continued existence Philosophy 100 Final Study Guide Bundle theory - can’t explain either the unity of consciousness at any time, or the unity of whole life, by referring to a person; must claim that there are long series of different mental states and events being what we call one life. Causal relations unify these series Part 2: Questions from Your Reading 1. People can conceive of water in the absence of H2O. This is impossible because water is H2O. Our ability to conceive of water that is not H2O does not provide evidence for the possibility of non-H2O water. But water is not equal to pain in the sense that water is not sufficiently comprehensive. Water is something that has a hidden essence, the hidden essence is H2O, and pain on the other hand is something that has no hidden essence. If you feel that you are in pain, then you are in pain. To determine whether or not you are in pain requires no scientific investigation. The fact that feeling pain is
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