PO171/ IR271 Exam essay questions & ID's

11 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
CAS PO 171
Professor
Ivan Arreguin- Toft

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IkenberryAfterVictoryWWIIconclusionsetup2majorsettlements1betweenUSandSovietUnionColdWarbipolarityUSfearsorSovietUnionestablishedMarshalPlancommitmenttoEurope2WesternCountriesandJapaninstitutionalizedindustrializedUnlikeinWWIwhereoneuniversalinstitutionwasestablishedbyUSWWIIbroughtmanyinstitutionsmarshalplanVandenbergResolutionNorthAtlanticTreatyNATONATOtokeeptheRussiansoutGermansdownandtheAmericansinAn Elegy for JournalismPeter OsnosRecent changes in how people consume news and the rise of the Internet and the precipitous decline in advertising have left print journalism especially bigcity newspapers in desperate straitsJournalism is an essentialeven indispensableelement of any functioning democracy Usually supported by advertising and circulation conflict between the need to cultivate the public interest and the duty to antagonize societies most powerful pillars through careful scrutiny Newspapers published a mix of news and opinion some from reporters they had sent abroadHamiltonThe golden age of American journalism is the period between the two world wars when outlets for foreign news swelled and a large number of experienced independent journalists circled the globe Todays issues with maintaining a foreign staff may not be all that newHow much does the inexorable decline of foreign reporting matter to the broader craft of journalism and the the greater public good Given the substantial stakes of conflicts overseas Iraq and Afghanistan the consistency and depth of reporting from both places seems too lowpeople should care more and should want to know what is going on in the worldThe iron core of journalism comes from shoeleather reporting experience and often courageIt is a form of news whose purpose is to hold government and those with power accountable Innovation and entrepreneurship never end and in the future journalists will gather the news using methods not yet created The Principles of NewspeakGeorge Orwell The appendix of his novel 1984A dystopian look to the future in a world where capitalism has completely taken over and invaded the personal and private lives of citizens IngsocEnglish Socialism The purpose of newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the workview and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc but to make all other modes of thought impossible Its vocabulary was so constructed as to give exact and often very subtle expression to every meaning that a Party member could properly wish to express Newspeak was designed to diminish the range of thought and this purpose was indirectly assisted by cutting the choice of words down to a minimumIncluded because of the connection to language in cultural dynamic the potential of the government taking over It was intended only to express simple purposive thoughts usually involving concrete objects or physical actions The End of HypocrisyFarrel and FinnemoreThe US has been under pressure after numerous leaks of classified information regarding both citizens and international actors In the form of WikiLeaks etc Leaked documents confirmed suspicions of Washingtons covert operationsA tradition of overlooking American hypocrisy on the aspect of privacy these continual breaches of security have made it difficult for international actors to ignore the issue any longerCausing tension between allies heightened paranoia amongst enemiesNations overlooked US covert missions because 1 the US is truly sincere in their desire for national privacy 2 Nations benefit from the public good that the US provides US has invaded Chinese computer systems and most of the cellphone providers in the country China has no other option but to respond negatively to the attacks of privacy from the US No easy response for Washington to make Hypocrisy in short is no longer an option for Washington any longer The Rise of Big Data How Its Changing the Way We Think About the WorldCukier and MayerSchoenberger The internet has changed how businesses operate governments function and people liveBig data is about more than just communication the idea is that we can learn from a large body of information things we could not comprehend when we used only smaller amountsThis explosion of data is fairly new as recently as the year 2000Big data is also characterized by the ability to render into data many aspects of the world that have never been quantified before call it datafication Three profound changes in how we approach data 1To collect and use a lot of data rather than settle for small amounts or samples2Shed our preferences for highly curated and pristine data and instead accept messiness a bit of inaccuracy can be tolerated because of the benefits of using vastly more data of variable quality overweighthe costs of using smaller amounts of very exact data 3We will need to give up the inclination to discover the cause of things in return for accepting correlations The internet has reshaped how humanity communicates Big Data marks a transformation is how society processes information There will always be constraints on how much data we can manage but it is far less limiting than it used to be and will become even less so as time goes onModern sampling is based on the idea that within a certain margin of error one can infer something about the total population from a small subset as long as the sample is chosen at random Today when we gather all the data we dont necessarily need to know what were going to do with it because of the vast potential for storing it
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