PS101 [REVIEW] Exam #1

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

2/6 EXAM REVIEW Format of the Exam Date: 2/7 Location: Regular lecture hall Time: 8AM Duration: 80 Mins. Multiple choice and matching Q. Match the scientist + accomplishment 1. Founder of first psychology lab - William Wundt 2. First president of APA- Stanley Hall 3. First woman president of APA- Mary Calkins 3. First woman psychology PhD - Margaret Washburn 5. Little Albert Experiment - John B. Watson 6. Student of Wilhelm Wundt - Edward Titchener 7. Wrote "Principles of Psychology", promoted functionalism - William James 8. Father of classical conditioning - Pavlov Q. Structuralism VS. Functionalism Structuralism focuses on identifying different elements of the mind and how they work, while functionalism focuses on identifying the purpose of these elements. S - Wundt & Titchener F - James RESEARCH METHODS AND ETHICS Q. Basic Statistics 1. The r-square statistic represents the proportion of variance in the dependent variable accounted for by the independent variable. 2. The p-value states the likelihood that the relationship occurred by chance. 3. Height and weight could be expected to display a positive correlation. Q. Describing distributions Measure of asymmetry: skew Measure of peakness: kurtosis Q. Key Terms in Research Ethics 1. The Nuremburg Code was formulated byAmerican judges istting in judgment of Nazi doctors. 2. The Tuskegee Study gained infamy by witholding effective treatment from syphilis sufferers. 3. The Belmont Report provides guidelines for the conduct of ethical human subjects research. 4. The IRB (Institutional Review Board) is the committee at a research institution that evaluates the ethics of proposed studies. 5. The principle of Beneficence seeks to maximize gains and minimize risks to subjects. 6. The vulnerability principle is one element of Respect for Persons from the Belmont Report. Q. Identify the research design 1. Manipulating an indep. variable and measuring a dep. variable - experiment 2. Examining a single person or animal in great depth - case study 3. Watching subjects, etc. BIOLOGICALBASES OF BEHAVIOR Q. Peripheral Nervous System Everything in the nervous system that isn’t the brain or spine (central). 1. Divided into the somatic nervous system (VOLUNTARY functions, e.g. movement) and autonomic nervous system (INVOLUNTARY functions, e.g. digestion and heart rate) 2. Autonomic nervous system is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Sympathetic: AROUSING (Fight or flight) - Heart rate and breathing increase, digestion is inhibited, increased perspiration Parasympathetic: CALMING (Rest and digest) 1. Sensory neurons pick up on external messages from the environment (e.g. a smell) and transmit them to the central nervous system. These are also called afferent neurons. 2. Motor neurons transmit messages from the CNS to the rest of the body - efferent neurons. Q.Action Potentials Definition:Abrief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge 1. When a neuron is at rest, it has a negative (70 mgb) charge relative to its environment. 2. During an action potential, channels along the axon open. Sodium ions rush into the cell and potassium ions rush
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