PS101 [REVIEW] Exam #2

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

2/27 REVIEW EXAM #2 Chapter 4 - 6 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception ● Sensation: Stimulation of sense organs ● Perception: Organization and interpretation of sensation ● Absolute threshold: Minimum intensity necessary to detect a stimulus 50% of the time ● Sensory adaptation: Gradual decline in response with repeated stimulation ○ Analogous to habituation (from Learning theory) Signal Detection Theory ● Detecting a stimulus is jointly determined by: ○ The intensity of the stimulus ○ The perceiver’s “response criterion” / threshold ● Stimulus detection can be organized into: ○ Hits: Correctly identify a present stimulus ○ Miss: Fail to identify a present stimulus ○ False Alarm: Detecting a stimulus that’s not really there ○ Correct Rejection: Correctly fail to detect absent stimuli Visual System: The Eye ● Retina: Layer of sensitive nerve cells at the back of the eye ○ Rods: In periphery of retina, very sensitive, contribute to night vision ○ Cones: In center of retina, less sensitive, contribute to day and color vision ● Path of Light: ○ Through the cornea > focused by the lens onto the retina > Retina sends information along the optic nerve to the thalamus > routed to visual cortex in the occipital lobe What’s all this about waves ● Key features of LIGHT waves: ○ Amplitude: ■ Height of the wave ■ Affects brightness ○ Wavelength: ■ How wide the wave is ■ Affects color ○ Purity: ■ How varied a group of waves are ■ Affects saturation ● Key feature of SOUND waves: ○ Amplitude: ■ Affects loudness Chapter 5: Consciousness Brain Waves and Stages of Sleep ● Beta waves:Awake and alert ● Alpha waves: Drowsy/relaxed ● Theta waves: Light sleep ● Delta waves: Deep sleep ● Stage 1 (transition into sleep): Theta waves ● Stage 2: Peculiar EEG features called sleep spindles (bursts of ) and K complexes ● Stage 3 & 4 (slow wave sleep): Increased Delta waves ● REM Sleep: beta waves, vivid dreaming Sleep: Sleep Disorders ● Dyssomnias: Disturbance in the amount, timing, and quality of sleep ○ Insomnia (linked to mental health problems) ○ Narcolepsy (excessive daytime sleepiness and falling asleep, rapid entry into REM sleep) ● Parasomnias: Disturbance in arousal and sleep stage transitions ○ Sleep walking ○ Night terrors (panicky awakenings from NREM sleep) ○ REM behavior disorder (acting out dream content due to absence of typical REM paralysis) Classes of Substances ● Opioids (called Narcotics in lecture notes) ○ Relieve pain, induce sleep and euphoria ○ Highly addictive ○ Heroin, morphine ● Stimulants: (Cocaine, caffeine, nicotine) ○ Increase CNS activity
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