PS101 [REVIEW] Exam #3 Notes
PS101 [REVIEW] Exam #3 Notes

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

CHAPTER 07 - HUMAN MEMORY Attention is important to memory Three Key Processes of Memory ● Encoding - Sense sensory input, short-term memory, → long-term ● Storage - Maintain, like hard drive ● Retrieval - Retrieve at will The Role of Attention ● Encoding ○ Forming a memory code from some stimulus ○ Vital aspect:Attention ● Levels of Encoding ○ Levels of Processing Theory ○ Structural Encoding: ■ Shallow process that emphasizes physical structure of word ■ Q. Is the word written in capital letters? ○ Phonemic Encoding: ■ Emphasizes what the word sounds like ■ Q. Does the word rhyme with weight? ○ Semantic Encoding ■ Emphasizes the meaning of the word ■ Q. Would the word fit in the sentence: “He met a ___ on the street”? ● Ways to Improve Encoding ○ Visual Imagery: ■ Dual Coding Theory: Memory is enhanced by semantic and/or visual codes ■ Word: Juggler Imagery: Guy juggling ■ Word: Truth Imagery: ? Indiv. imagery Self-Referent - Find way to link academics/learning/knowledge to YOU. + Motivation Information Processing Theories ● Sensory Memory ● Short-term Memory ● Long-term Memory Sensory Memory Short-term elaborative reh. Long-term Sensory input →Attention → Rehearsal → Storage → Unlimited capacity store ← Retrieval Sensory Memory ● Gives us time to facilitate ● ~1 second ● Lasts very short, especially if unattended ● Iconic - visual (icon) ● Echoic - auditory ● Sensory ● Auditory ● Most info in sensory memory rapidly fades unless unattended Short-term Memory ● Limited capacity ● 20~30 seconds ● Once in short-term, still attended in some way, facilitate further ● Rehearsal - rehearse information → further encoding ● Serial position effect - what order do you recall items ○ Primacy - better recall from beginning (of the list) ○ Recency - better recall from last / most recent (of list) The Magic Number Seven +/-2 ● FBI NBC CIAIBM → FBINBCCIAIBM Short-term Memory as Working Memory ● Phonological Loop ● Visuospatial Sketchpad - hold visual images ○ Someone’s face ○ Room layout ● Central Executive System ○ Multi-task ○ 50% Studying, 25% Phone, 25% TV ● Episodic Buffer ○ Prepares short-term memory information for long-term memory Effortful Processing: Intentional conscious effort ● Maintenance Rehearsal: Repetitive ● Elaborative Rehearsal:Imagery, organize, link to relevant How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? Conceptual hierarchy Schematic Retrieval and Context Cues ● (Ex.) 1) Begins with “N” 2) Ends in -ism 3) First syllables rhymes with pep ● Flashball Memory: Vivid detailed recollection of some significant event Encoding Specificity Principle ● Context-Dependent Memory ● State-Dependent Memory Memory is enhanced match those during encoding ?? Retrieving info in context in a certain state where the encoding ?? Why do we forget? ● Encoding failure: ~Not enough attention, etc. ● Decay Theory: Memory traces fade away with disuse ● Interference Theory: Something impairs retrieval ○ Proactive Interference: Passed material interferes with recall of new material ○ Retroactive Interference: New info interferes with ability to recall old info ○ (Ex.) New phone, new number. When asked, can only remember old number. 2 years later, old number is forgotten and then ‘new’number is remembered. ● Motivation: ○ Conscious ○ Unconscious ● Amnesia: Memory loss because of specific condition (Dementia, car accident, etc.) ○ Retrograde Amnesia: Personality Tests aptitude goes to potential more than knowledge intelligence, aptitude, achievement tests. Validity Reliability: consistency of the test and results Basic Questions Normal distribution graph Intellectual disability: 70- IQ Giftedness: 130+ IQ Laypersons’Conceptions of Intelligence Verbal Intelligence: ● Speaks clearly and articulately ● Is verbally fluent ● Is knowledgeable about a particular field ● Reads with high comprehension Practical Intelligence: ● Sees all aspects of a problem ● Sizes up situations well ● Makes good decisions ● Poses problems in an optimal way Social Intelligence: ● Accepts others for what they are ● Has social conscience ● Thinks before speaking and doing ● Is sensitive to other people’s needs and desires Binet’s Breakthrough ● The Binet Tests ○ Mental age (MA): measure of an individual’s level of mental development relative to others ○ Intelligence quotient (IQ): person’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 ■ Mental age IQ = -------------------------- x 100 Chronological age Wechsler’s Innovations ● WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) ○ Preschool, 6 - 16,Adult ○ Eleven subscales: ■ Verbal IQ ■ Performance IQ Factor analysis - 2 factor solutions, one verbal, one performance (combine all results) Debate about the Structure of Intelligence ● Spearman’s g ○ Orange box → g ○ Outside grey boxes S1 S2 S3 ● FactorApproaches ○ Two-factor theory: Spearman’s theory that individuals have both general intelligence “g” and specific inteliigence ○ Multiple-factor theory: Thurstone’s theory that intelligence consists of seven primary mental abilities Sternberg’s Theory of Intelligence Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence ● Verbal ● Mathematical ● Spatial ● Bodily-Kinesthetic ● Musical Skills ● Interpersonal ● Intrapersonal ● Naturalist Intellectual Disability The prevalence of various levels of mental retardation. ● 85% Mild (IQ range: 55 - 70) ● 10% Moderate (IQ range: 40 - 54) ● 5% Severe or profound (Severe: 25 - 39) (Profound: 25-) Physical damage, some trauma, something organic happened that explain the intellectual disability. Organic vs cultural familia Evidence for Heredity... Heritability Estimates for Intelligence ● “High” estimate ○ 80% heredity ○ 20% environment ● “Low” estimate ○ 60% environment ○ 40% heredity Evidence for Environmental influence ● Adoption studies ○ Biological parents ○ Adoptive parents ○ Adoptive child CHAPTER 10 - Motivation What is motivation? ● Process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior. Drive Theories ● Motivation is based on some internal state of flux or tension that motivates organism to do something that reduces those states or returns to homeostasis equilibrium. ● Motives: Needs, interests, desires, that propel us to behave. ● Blood vessels in skin dilate to remove heat ● Person sweats ● Turns down furnace ● Removes sweater Incentive Theories ● Need → Drive → Response → Something positive (i.e, ice cream, money,A+) High-incentive value goal ● Need → Drive → Response → Something negative (i.e, carrot Low-incentive value goal ● External stimuli Extrinsic Motivation ● Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment Intrinsic Motivation ● Performing an activity for its own sake Biological vs. Social Motives (Fig. 10.2) Biological Motives: ● Hunger ● Thirst ● Excretion ● Sex ● Sleep ● Activity ● Temperature ● Aggression Social Motives: ● Achievement ● Nurturance - to care for others ● Exhibition - to impress others ● Affiliation ● Order - tidiness ● Autonomy - independence / adult ● Dominance - make our mark / influence and control outcomes ● Play - for amusement / relaxation Humanistic Views ● Striving for personal growth ● Need hierarchy: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ● Self-determination theory: focus on psychological needs ○ Competence ○ Autonomy ○ Relatedness Motivation … Example ● Motivation of Hunger ○ Biological Factors: ■ Hypothalamus ■ Blood Glucose ■ Insulin ■ Leptin - Less = More eating. ○ Environmental Factors: ■ Presence of others ■ Food cues ■ OBservational Learning, culture ■ Stressful events ■ Learned Preferences ○ Dieting: ■ Societal pressures ■ Body image ■ … may evolve into eating disorder Emotions What are emotions? ● Feeling (affect) states that involve a pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral reactions to events Cognition and Emotion Cognitive Component ● Cognitive appraisals ● Subjective feelings ● It’s about how we’re interpreting the event Physical Component ● Autonomic arousal ● Amygdala Behavioral Component ● Body language ● Facial expressions ● Primary Emotions: ○ They move to self-conscious emotions (i.e., guilt, embarrassment) ● Secondary Emotions: ○ Alarm = fear + surprise ○ Hatred = anger + disgust Emotions as Social Communications ● Provide clues about our internal states and intentions ○ Influence how others behave toward us Common Features of Emotions Positive Psychology ● Emphasize/addresses questions related to: ○ Happiness ○ Life satisfaction / well-being ○ Human potential ○ Resilience ○ Coping ○ Love Happiness / Life-satisfaction Scale 1 (Strongly Disagree) ... 4 (Neutral) ... 7 (StronglyAgree) ● In most ways my life is close to my ideal ● The conditions of my life are excellent ● I am satisfied Ryff: Well-Being What Makes People Happy? ● Marriage ● College ● Religion ● PoliticalAffiliation ● Exercise ● Downward comparisons CHAPTER 11 : Human DevelopmentAcross the Lifespan Development ● Pattern of change ● Begins at conception ● Continues through life cycle ● ~122 oldest person ● ~78.7 average life expectancy ● ~76.2 men ● ~81.1 women Y-axis,Age at time of testing, 0 - 50 in tens Cross-sectional design: people of varying ages studied simultaneously X-axis, Year testing is conducted, 2005 - 2045 in tens Longitudinal design: same people studied over a period of time Longitudinal Research Y-axis, VocabularyAbility, -20 - 10 in 5s X-axis, Age at Measurement, 0-80 in 10s. Developmental Processes ● Biological processes ● Cognitive processes ● Socioemotional processes Periods of Development Prenatal period, Infancy, Early childhood, Middle and late childhood,Adolescence Multifinality Predictor (genetics, trauma, SES, attachment, etc.) → 3 outcomes Outcome (behavior, disorder, success, etc.) → 3 predictors Core Issues in Development ● Nature and Nurture ● Critical Periods and Plasticity ○ Are some developmental outcomes restricted to certain “critical periods” or is it at all periods? → Both. ○ We are not just older versions of our younger selves. We have the capacity to change. ● Continuity and Discontinuity ○ Are there important continuities across the lifespan, or is it everything in flux? ○ Continuity is linear growth. ○ Discontinuity is step-like. (Like going up stairs.) ● Universality and Specificity ○ Universal developmental trajectories, process, and changes or is development more specific to place and time? ○ Age-graded Change ■ What most people experience at a chronological age group (puberty, etc.) ○ History-graded Change ■ Development is influenced by events (Great Depression, 9/11, etc.) ○ Non-normative (Life-) Change ■ We may share but are very specific/personal (Loss of loved one, chronic illness, etc.) ● Activity and Passivity ● Transactional Model ○ Developmental changes occur as a result of continuous reciprocal interactions between us and the environment ○ Self-evaluation Periods of Development ● Prenatal: Conception to birth ● Infancy: Birth to 18-24 months ○ Period of extreme dependence on caregivers ● Early childhood: 18-24 months to 5-6 years ○ Preschool years
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