PS101 [REVIEW] Exam #4 (Including Ch. 12 & Ch. 14)

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Department
Psychological & Brain Sciences
Course
CAS PS 101
Professor
Barry Grant
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 12 (Personality), Chapter 14 (Stress, Coping, Health), Chapter 15 (Mental Disorders) Not cumulative, 64 questions, Emphasis on Personality, Health & Stress (slightly less emphasized), Mental Illness 5/2 @ 8AM. Outline of Exam Content ● Personality ○ Big Five Personality Traits ○ Personality disorders ○ Freudian theory of personality ● Stress, Coping & Health ○ General themes in stress & health ○ Types of stress and coping ○ Health belief model ○ Selye’s model of stress response ● Psychological Disorders ○ Distinguishing abnormal from normal ○ Diagnostic axes in the DSM ○ Major Depression ○ Schizophrenia ○ Other mental disorders ○ Hannah’s guest lecture on treatment * CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY Big Five Personality Traits ● Openness to Experience (spontaneous, tolerant, creative) ● Conscientiousness (hard-working, careful) ● Extraversion (outgoing) ● Agreeableness (tries to keep people happy) ● Neuroticism (anxious, irritable, depressive) Personality Disorders ● Antisocial ○ Disregard for others’welfare, manipulative, deceitful, often criminal behavior ● Dependent ○ Need for care and affection, submissive, clingy, fears abandonment ● Narcissistic ○ Exaggerated belief in own self-importance and superiority, need for admiration ● Histrionic ○ Pattern of dramatic yet shallow emotions displays, provocative and attention- seeking behavior (e.g., overtly sexual or flirtatious) ● Paranoid ○ Extreme distrust and suspiciousness of others, often very jealous ● Obsessive-Compulsive ○ Preoccupation with orderliness and control, rigid adherence to rules, hates spontaneity, things should be done “just so” Personality Disorder Clusters (1 Q.) ● A. Odd/Eccentric ○ Paranoid ○ Schizoid (didn’t learn) ○ Schizotypal (didn’t learn) ● B. Dramatic/ERratic ○ Antisocial ○ Histrionic ○ Narcissistic ○ Borderline (didn’t learn) ● C.Anxious/Fearful ○ Dependent ○ OCPD ○ Avoidant (didn’t learn) Freudian Theory of Personality ● Three Components of the Mind: ○ Id: Driven by pleasure ○ Superego: Driven by morality and social convention ○ Ego: Rational portion of the mind that tries to reconcile id and superego ● Defense Mechanisms: ○ Unconscious psychological “tricks” people use to deal with distress ■ E.g. Protection - attributing your problem to someone else ■ E.g. Displacement - taking out negative feelings on a new target ■ E..g. Sublimation - transferring your feelings into adaptive action ● Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development (1 Q.) ○ People progress through psychosexual stages as children ■ Each stage has a new “focus” (e.g., on the mouth, genitals, anus, etc.) ○ If normal development is disrupted somehow, might get “stuck” in that stage, leading to psychopathology in adulthood ○ This is purely THEORETICAL and IS NOT EMPIRICALLY SUPPORTED ● Psychosexual stages ○ Oral - Focus on mouth, theme = (in)dependence ○ Anal - Focus on anus, theme = control ○ Phallic - Focus on genitals, theme = morality/identity ○ Latency - Sexuality repressed, focus on social/intellectual growth ○ Genital - Focus on genitals, theme = mature sexual relationships * CHAPTER 14: STRESS, COPING & HEALTH General Idea: ● Stress: Pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological responses and behavioral tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and the resources needed to cope with them ● Biopsychosocial Model of Health ○ Physical illness is caused by the interaction of BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, and SOCIOCULTURAL factors Types of Stressors and Coping ● Stressors: ○ Acute or chronic ○ Microstressors, major life events, catastrophes ○ Consider intensity, duration, chronicity, predictability, controllability ● Coping: ○ Problem-focused ○ Emotion-focused Selye’s GeneralAdaptation Syndrome ● Alarm: Recognizing a threat ○ Accompanied by fight-or-flight arousal ● Resistance: Trying to combat prolonged stress ● Exhaustion: Resources are eventually depleted ○ Leaves you vulnerable to compromised mental and physical health Health Belief Model ● Assumption: People desire to avoid illness or get well; and that they believe that a specific health action will prevent illness ● Three Factors Affecting Health Behaviors: ○ Background:Age, race, sex, education level ○ Perceptions: ■ E.g. Perceived susceptibility - How likely you think it is that you’re actually going to have a certain outcome ■ E.g., Perceived self-efficiency - Thoughts about how much you can control your own risk ○ Actions: ■ Cues to action, e.g., information from the media
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