PS101 [REVIEW] Exam #4 (Including Ch. 12 & Ch. 14)

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

Chapter 12 (Personality), Chapter 14 (Stress, Coping, Health), Chapter 15 (Mental Disorders) Not cumulative, 64 questions, Emphasis on Personality, Health & Stress (slightly less emphasized), Mental Illness 5/2 @ 8AM. Outline of Exam Content ● Personality ○ Big Five Personality Traits ○ Personality disorders ○ Freudian theory of personality ● Stress, Coping & Health ○ General themes in stress & health ○ Types of stress and coping ○ Health belief model ○ Selye’s model of stress response ● Psychological Disorders ○ Distinguishing abnormal from normal ○ Diagnostic axes in the DSM ○ Major Depression ○ Schizophrenia ○ Other mental disorders ○ Hannah’s guest lecture on treatment * CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY Big Five Personality Traits ● Openness to Experience (spontaneous, tolerant, creative) ● Conscientiousness (hard-working, careful) ● Extraversion (outgoing) ● Agreeableness (tries to keep people happy) ● Neuroticism (anxious, irritable, depressive) Personality Disorders ● Antisocial ○ Disregard for others’welfare, manipulative, deceitful, often criminal behavior ● Dependent ○ Need for care and affection, submissive, clingy, fears abandonment ● Narcissistic ○ Exaggerated belief in own self-importance and superiority, need for admiration ● Histrionic ○ Pattern of dramatic yet shallow emotions displays, provocative and attention- seeking behavior (e.g., overtly sexual or flirtatious) ● Paranoid ○ Extreme distrust and suspiciousness of others, often very jealous ● Obsessive-Compulsive ○ Preoccupation with orderliness and control, rigid adherence to rules, hates spontaneity, things should be done “just so” Personality Disorder Clusters (1 Q.) ● A. Odd/Eccentric ○ Paranoid ○ Schizoid (didn’t learn) ○ Schizotypal (didn’t learn) ● B. Dramatic/ERratic ○ Antisocial ○ Histrionic ○ Narcissistic ○ Borderline (didn’t learn) ● C.Anxious/Fearful ○ Dependent ○ OCPD ○ Avoidant (didn’t learn) Freudian Theory of Personality ● Three Components of the Mind: ○ Id: Driven by pleasure ○ Superego: Driven by morality and social convention ○ Ego: Rational portion of the mind that tries to reconcile id and superego ● Defense Mechanisms: ○ Unconscious psychological “tricks” people use to deal with distress ■ E.g. Protection - attributing your problem to someone else ■ E.g. Displacement - taking out negative feelings on a new target ■ E..g. Sublimation - transferring your feelings into adaptive action ● Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development (1 Q.) ○ People progress through psychosexual stages as children ■ Each stage has a new “focus” (e.g., on the mouth, genitals, anus, etc.) ○ If normal development is disrupted somehow, might get “stuck” in that stage, leading to psychopathology in adulthood ○ This is purely THEORETICAL and IS NOT EMPIRICALLY SUPPORTED ● Psychosexual stages ○ Oral - Focus on mouth, theme = (in)dependence ○ Anal - Focus on anus, theme = control ○ Phallic - Focus on genitals, theme = morality/identity ○ Latency - Sexuality repressed, focus on social/intellectual growth ○ Genital - Focus on genitals, theme = mature sexual relationships * CHAPTER 14: STRESS, COPING & HEALTH General Idea: ● Stress: Pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological responses and behavioral tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and the resources needed to cope with them ● Biopsychosocial Model of Health ○ Physical illness is caused by the interaction of BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, and SOCIOCULTURAL factors Types of Stressors and Coping ● Stressors: ○ Acute or chronic ○ Microstressors, major life events, catastrophes ○ Consider intensity, duration, chronicity, predictability, controllability ● Coping: ○ Problem-focused ○ Emotion-focused Selye’s GeneralAdaptation Syndrome ● Alarm: Recognizing a threat ○ Accompanied by fight-or-flight arousal ● Resistance: Trying to combat prolonged stress ● Exhaustion: Resources are eventually depleted ○ Leaves you vulnerable to compromised mental and physical health Health Belief Model ● Assumption: People desire to avoid illness or get well; and that they believe that a specific health action will prevent illness ● Three Factors Affecting Health Behaviors: ○ Background:Age, race, sex, education level ○ Perceptions: ■ E.g. Perceived susceptibility - How likely you think it is that you’re actually going to have a certain outcome ■ E.g., Perceived self-efficiency - Thoughts about how much you can control your own risk ○ Actions: ■ Cues to action, e.g., information from the media
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